Kuwait Bay Ecology Assignment Help

Kuwait Bay Ecology Assignment Help

Executive Summary: Ecology Assignment

The Ecology Assignment report is about the massive fish deaths in Kuwait bay and Persian Gulf in year 2001. The report gives information on the chain of events happened in this phenomena’ reasons behind them’ there impact on ecology as well as economy of the area. It also provides information on other factors like human causes’ high temperature and its impact on overall phenomena. We also analyse the situation’ how it affected the whole population of fishes in area and how it made a recovery from the affect. In the end of report after thorough analysis as well as situational aspects to be taken into account recommendations were made to avoid such events to happen in future and if happens how to control their effect and reduce damages to a minimum.

Introduction: Kuwait Bay Ecology  Assignment Help

In year 2001 during the month of august to September the Kuwait bay and Persian Gulf observed a massive killing of its fishes specially varieties like wild mullet (Liza klunzingeri) which was more than 2500 metric tonnes in these two months. The root cause of this killing was attributed to a dino flagellate Gymnodinium sp. The Kuwait bay is a relatively shallow sea with high concentration of salinity and pollution because of petrochemicals and industrial wastages. There were regular killing of fish in the area up to the tune of 100-1000 fishes per day but there was a sudden outburst in that number. After proper analysis of the situation many other associated human factors and activities came forward which also contributed in massive killing of fishes. This killing of fished drew attention of environmentalist from all over the world and it also impacted the ecological as well as economical balance of the area hugely. Afterwards various studies were done to understand the phenomena and how to avoid repetitions in future.

 Investigation And Analysis

Kuwait bay is a shallow water bay with an average depth of 3 meters only and maximum depth of 20 meters so it is evident that sunlight is easily available to its organism and the whole bay comes under sunlight zone which gives a boost to growth of phytoplankton’s and algae. During the massive killing of fishes the samples were obtained from the bay and various studies were done on it. Samples were collected from different areas like fishing zone’ industrial and civil waste disposalarea and neutral zone to study the difference in nutrient concentration of water. The studies were done by Kuwait environmental authority only.

After the sample collections were done they were immediately frozen to preserve their nutrient and dissolved gases concentration. Then various tests were done to find out the chlorophyll content’ inorganic and organic nitrogen content’ organic phosphorus content’ dissolved organic carbon etc to find out the imbalance and difference between normal permissible level and actual content of Kuwait bay water (Olayan et al, 2005).

For bacterial study the number of bacteria present in water was calculated within one hour of sample collection. There Analysis shows a number of Gymnodium sp. Of range higher than 6 x 10 6in fish kill area and one more species was also observed known as Mesodinium ruburm. The Gymnodium observed in this study was similar to the same species available in New Zealand but it had some unique characteristics so later it was names as a different species. The pollutant content of bay water was also higher which gave the new species of algae a unique chance to grow and flourish. These algae were extremely harming for fishes specially mullet causing them to die in hundreds of thousands in number. These algae didn’t have any harm full effect on human species directly but it caused a lot of indirect economic and ecological imbalance to the area which will be discussed in next part of report.

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Ecological Impact of Fish Killing

It was assessed during the study that the nitrogen concentration was increased highly in bay water just prior to fish killing almost double than normal level and during the month of October it escalated to 20 times causing a serious damage to the whole flora and fauna of the eco system. The nitrogen phosphorus balance which is required to keep the normal phytoplankton number in check was also increased by 5 times and so does the nitrogen silicon ratio. The red colour of the

Kuwait bay during the event also was attached to the number of increased phytoplankton’s and there extracellular release in water. The earlier phytoplankton present in water were non toxic in nature but the new found species was toxic in nature and caused fish killing because of that toxicity increased in bay water. This toxicity also severely affected the shell fish population of Kuwait bay as they were killed in large numbers too. This bloom of dino flagellates in bay was flown to the nearby Iraq and Arabian Sea in time of 2 weeks causing a disturbance in there ecosystem though not of same magnitude.

Effect on Population of Fishes

Now finfish is one of the major food components of Kuwaiti population and because of fish killing in bay the stress was now on other sources of fishes like rivers’ ponds and aquaculture areas. Due to increased fishing in these areas the ecosystem of these areas were also getting disturbed. This leads to a decrease in number of fish available in area. Both bay of Kuwait as well as other sources was almost out of fishes by the time the effect was wearing off.

Recovery

The recovery was taken upon by Kuwait environmental authority. The KEA first studied the causal reason in depth and maintained its specific objectives on how to recover the damages. Firstly the banned the usage of any kind of sea food from Kuwait bay to avoid any damage to human population (Emmanuel et al, 2004). Then chemicals spilling into sea water from various industries were checked and where ever irregularities were found they were shut down. A lot of organic compounds and biological organisms were added in sea water to restore the natural imbalance as well as reduce the effect of toxic algae from bay. The aquaculture department started breeding the fish from scratch and attempts were made to make them stronger and modified so that they can adapt to severe environmental conditions. The environmental agencies were more vigilant now and norms were made tougher for all possible causes. There were regular checks of bay water to keep a vigil on any kind of imbalance in situation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen were restored to normal level after lot of efforts from agencies and government and international organizations. Still it took substantial time before showing any kind improvement (Mickeniene, 2005).

Economic Impact of Fish Killing in Area

The economic impact of fish killing was massive on Kuwait. Kuwait is a country which is almost dependent on its oil production for its economy and it’s really impossible for them to close this industry so a temporary set back on oil production by environmental agencies may be for current situation as well as in future could lead to severe economic damages. The area is almost deserted and except fishes Kuwait is entirely dependent on imports for its food requirements and with fishing out of the question after this it also put more pressure on economy to import more for fulfilling the requirements of population (Olayan & Thomas, 2004).  The fishermen and associated dealers and companies were also dependent on fishing from Kuwait bay for their livelihoods they were also severely damaged financially because of it and government had to come to their rescue by various programmes. The expenditure on studies and environmental agencies work was also stressing the economy of the area. The gulf region was facing economic crunch from multiple ways causing immense burden on it. The international agencies for environment like GEOHAB and UN agencies were putting in effect stricter norms which were also costing a lot of money to implement and enforce (Laopaiboon, 2003).

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Possible Solution and Recommendations

  1. A proper and effective HAB (harm full algal blooms) should be initiated by government to keep a vigil on any changes in water sources to keep any mishap in control and to avoid it.
  2. New industries and oil production should be kept as far as possible from coastal area and water treatment should be made compulsory before releasing into sea.
  3. A new world class institute should be started to study the environmental effects and technology to keep a continuous program for research and development in this field. This will help them improve on current technology as well as provide them with breakthroughs in aqua culture.
  4. Law enforcement agencies should be stricter in enforcing law on all kind of industries’ pollution causing bodies to prevent such kind of incidents in future.
  5. New norms should be developed which should be in accordance with international standards for environmental clearance as well as pollution norms and should be reviewed periodically.
  6. Heavy fines and punishments should be imposed on defaulters of environmental law.
  7. More money and time should be invested in advance research to create genetically modified and stronger species of fishes which can tolerate environmental stresses.
  8. Cross breeding with a stronger breed could be one possible solution.
  9. More awareness among general people as well as fishermen’s to avoid pollutions as well as give any early warning if they see any kind of disturbance.
  10. Aquaculture department should be working more aggressively towards bringing new species as well as growth of current species for food requirements of Kuwaiti population.

References

  • Al-Sarawi, A., M.S. Massoud, S.R. Khader and H. Bu-Olayan, 2002. Recent trace metals in coastal waters of Sulaibhikhat Bay. Kuwait. Technology, 8: 27-38.
  • Bu-Olayan, A.H. and B.V. Thomas 2005. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mullet fish Liza klunzingeri (Mugilidae: Perciformes). Chem. Ecol., 21: 191-197.
  • Bu-Olayan, A.H. and B.V. Thomas, 2004. Effects of trace metals, harmful algal blooms, nutrients and hydrological variables to mullet Liza klunzingeri in Kuwait Bay. Biosc. Biotechnol. Res. Asia, 2: 1-8.
  • Emmanuel, E., G. Keck, J.M. Blanchard, P. Vermande and Y. Perrodin, 2004. Toxicological effects of disinfections using sodium hypochlorite on aquatic organisms and its contribution to AOX formation in hospital wastewater. Environ. Int., 30: 891-900.
  • Jolibois, B., M. Guerbet and S. Vassal, 2002. Glutaraldehyde in hospital wastewater. Arch. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 42: 137-144.