This Remedial Approach Assignment describe GDR Technology, Remedial technolgoy
Remedial Approach – Introduction
A remedial approach assignment for assessment of sites regarding the risk level is conventionally based on following core principles.
(1) The remedial method should be highly effective and suitable to solve a particular requirement of that site.
(2) It should be feasible for the engineers and workforce to execute that remedial method in that site.
(3) The cost of the remedial method should be within the reasonable range.
(4) The time line for that remedial method should be suitable for the particular site.
It is observed that using such approaches is not always an effective solution of the problem because many of these approaches discounts the incorporation of environmental factors in it. There are aspects like usage of natural resources ‘their sourcing’ waste disposal in proper manner’ carbon emission levels and energy requirements. All these factors impact the external environment greatly. There are other issues as well like logistic movements of the equipments and materials which are required for the remedial method on the site. It is still being researched that such an approach is overall beneficial for the environment or not in a manner of totality. However recently to remove these complications and to create a more environmentally friendly approach a great emphasis has been given on keeping the green house gas emission levels as low as possible. This approach was named as GSR or Green and sustainable remediation method. GSR is a more advanced and all round approach of site remedy which considers factors like human health’ energy usage’ emission levels before developing a remedial method. The mission of a GSR is to
- Reduce the energy usage levels and to encourage organizations and engineers to source their energy requirements from renewable resources. This energy is greener and can be used for all types of operations or transportations.
- The second mission is to reduce the resource consumption specially the resources which are natural in nature and non-renewable.
- More focused and effective methods to dispose the waste material and recycle it as much as possible thus reducing the demand for new resource and reduce negative impact on environment as well.
- Another mission of GSR is to enhance the options which let a future reuse open for remediated land (USEPA, 2008; Ellis and Hadley, 2009). These missions or goals not only have a positive impact on the environment but they also improvise the socioeconomic benefits of the society which is commonly known as the triple bottom lines of a project.
All concerned stake holders in a project like government agencies’ industry players’ engineers and organizations are pursuing the cause of developing a very innovative and active work plan to promote the usage of GSR Techniques all over the globe including USA. In this marketing research paper in this paper the researcher will observe and briefly analyse the decision making process and the decision matrix of GSR. The statistical tool of this decision matrix includes the metrics and framework which can measure the sustainability of the project from all aspects. We will also discuss various opportunities and challenges faced by a professional while implementing a GSR.
In a GSR frame work a lot of inter related factors are fused to provide a all round framework which incorporates various environmental’ social and economic factors which are applicable in decision making process. The GSR framework is continuously involving which makes it a dynamic framework because of this factor a standardized framework is yet to be developed. However a few common factors are majorly included in all versions of framework
- To reduce the consumption of energy for the remedial methods and incorporates such positive attributes that the ground water levels’ consumable products and residual soil remains unharmed. Encouraging usage of renewable energy source is also one of the aspects of GSR.
- To reduce the carbon and green house emission levels for both on site and off site operations.
- Incorporation of recycling technologies which minimize the waste products formation at sites as well as operational centres.
- Usage of renewable and recyclable sources of water.
- To use the remedial technologies in such a fashion that the land remains suitable for other purposes as well in future.
- To enhance the usage of products in such a manner that natural resources are consumed less and most of the by products are used in other processes.
Using this framework is very important for the selection and development of remedial technologies for sites which are not suitable for usage in their present forms. To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different remedial methods a professional will list the specific information of a site and then evaluate each remedial technique and selects the best suited option. The GSR will ensure that each alternative is also evaluated on parameters like greenhouse gas emissions, energy and materials consumption, land use, and water usage.
There are various phases present in a GSR and all key principles of GSR are engaged in each phase of remediation process so that the overall project complies with the GSR norms. The phases of GSR are:-
- Investigation of a site
- Selection of a remediation system’ its designing and operations.
- Monitoring and supervising of the entire process
- Closure of the project and giving a recommended usage of land.
In phase one of remedial the investigation process usually follows the recommended triad decision making approach which is USEPA’s recommended process (USEPA, 2001). There are three step by step processes of site investigation (1) systematic project planning, (2) dynamic work strategies, and (3) real-time measurement technologies. These phases and decision making approach reduce the ambiguity attached to a decision and ensures that success rate of decision is enhanced.
Appropriate sustainability principles can be incorporated into site characterization activities. For example, direct push technologies, geophysical techniques, and passive sampling and monitoring techniques can reduce waste generation, consume less energy, and minimize land and ecosystem disturbance.
There are many challenges and obstacles present when a remedial technology is selected and it is not an easy job to incorporate all GSR parameters in one technology. The sustainability of a GSR complying technology is a very difficult task to achieve. A large number of technologies are employed on different sites but each one of them is not able to meet a few criteria’s of GSR fully (Sharma and Reddy, 2004). In an ideal GSR technology following attributes are to be incorporated
- To reduce the negative impacts a remedial approach causes on its immediate environment and eco system.
- To provide a solution which is a feasible approach in longer run as well as shorter run and the results are both efficient and effective.
- Provide a reclaimed land which is usable for various projects and appropriately developed for future usage as well.
- The time limit and cost of the approach should be within reasonable range and also appropriate for the entire project management.
- The impacts on the health of a human being should be almost negligible and the quantity of goods consumed for the process should be reduced.
- Reduce energy consumption’ carbon and GHG emission level’ waste disposal and water needs. Also needs to have minimal impact on ground water levels and quality of water.
Over the years professionals has experienced that technologies which causes a large amount of mass transfer in a contaminated state from one media to another are not a sustainable solution while on the other hand the technologies which reduces the transfer of such contaminated masses are preferred because of their advantages in longer run.
A large number of remedial technologies do satisfy the core requirements of GSR however these technologies are also required to pass the feasibility and suitability of their usage in a site especially in context of their implementation in a particular site. For example in a technology known as bio remediation technology satisfies all the other parameters but the time consumed is very high which makes it lesser attractive for projects which is of shorter duration. There are approaches known as phyto remediation and permeable reactive barrier utilization which uses a lesser number of material and equipments in the process and their wastage generation is also comparatively lesser than other technologies but there is a constant fear of contamination of water in these systems specially in the receiving phase of water treatment. The in place management concept provides a controlling method for engineers which is more naturally attenuated and occasionally it is compared with the benefits of an aggressive approach where excavation and disposal of land is done in a rapid speed.
It has been argued by many researchers and engineers that when one technology is not able to answer all requirements of GSR then the probable solution could be to develop a regime which is composed of multiple technologies and together this combination fulfil all the needs. For example there are a few technologies which are highly effective in reducing the residual contaminant concentration but not effective enough to treat a source contaminant and vice versa. Ina final evaluation of technologies the active forms outweighs the passive forms in treatment of contamination even though their energy requirements are much higher and emission levels are also not very encouraging. The solution argued here is to use a passive technology to treat a residual contamination which has lower energy requirements and less emission and when the phase of source treatment is initiated the aggressive modes can be used for the shorter term. This combination of technology will provide a net positive result on environment. For example to dilute the large ground water plumes a passive technology can be used effectively even though it is a slow process the net environmental results are positive in nature.
The time consumption of remedial technology is also one of the very important factors which influence the decision highly. As it has been described a less emission technology will usually have a long gestation period and occasionally their energy consumption is higher because of their long duration as compared to a aggressive technology which might be using higher energy levels but the shorter duration makes up the over usage lesser. There is also a consideration of usage of renewable energy source as it can be considered that even if a technology is using a very high level of energy if the energy consumed is drawn from a renewable source than the negative impacts on environment management.
There are other milestones in a process which can be used to reduce the energy consumption and emission levels. Like developing an efficient design’ optimizing the process in such a way that energy is never gets wasted and utilization percentage is increased. Usage of solar and wind energy is particularly gaining attraction of many projects in USA as well as other countries.
There are many case studies developed by USEPA and other authors over the years which are demonstrating the impact of renewable source of energy’ producing less wastage and increased recycling of products and other associated benefits of GSR (USEPA (2008). Higgins and Olsen (2009) performed a comparative LCA of pump and treat and permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technologies and demonstrated that PRB was advantageous for net environmental benefit. Ellis and Hadley (2009) has also developed a few case studies which highlights the fact that LCA is not rarely implied in a site remediation process currently. Another author Diamond et al. (1999) has developed a life-cycle framework specifically applicable for site remediation and Page et al. (1999) has done a comparative analysis to provide a feasible application of framework in real world. There are case studies developed by famous authors like Godin et al. (2004) and Toffoletto et al. (2005) who has done a comparative analysis of LCA on various remedial methods and concluded the results that LCA can be employed effectively in combination and off site remediation biologically can be optimized to reduce the negative impacts on eco system.
Another author Cadotte et al. (2007) applied LCA to compare and analyse two different in-situ and ex-situ methods to remediate a LNAPL site and demonstrated that with Optimal combinations of soil and groundwater these technologies can be developed into a highly effective and efficient process of land remediation.
In conclusion it is emphasized again that GSR is a continuously evolving and developing technology which needs to be applied for all site remediation. The aims and objectives of a GSR are measurable in long term and its goals are to keep a balance between a land remediation process and its environment. The results provided by a GSR are more efficient’ effective’ less polluting and uses a lesser number of resources. The positive impacts of a GSR are more in number than the challenges it posses and it influencing every stake holder of a land remediation procedure to take them into consideration. In a remedial system selection and its optimization the GSR can play a very active role in making it environmentally friendly and long term sustainable option.