PART I: Critical Evaluation of Fundamental Properties of Pervasive Systems
Give a critical analysis of this paper, showing the pros and cons of this approach.
In this article we have talked about various technologies and its parts and how they are integrated in the pervasive system technology and discussed about its implications. Here we look for technology that supports wireless device connectivity and then a constant yet smooth connectivity is maintained and it does not matter that where our wireless device is situated. By providing these services, the network company looks forward to get a desired connectivity that would facilitate and help both the consumer as well as for the organization; so that both gets benefited. Telephone operators are looking forward for this service and rely on great extent as this service benefits them immensely.
But we see there are also some disadvantages along with this technology. Here the network is not secure and the threat to breach of information always lies, and so security threat always lies with the consumer. By take care of this problem, proper measures should be taken into account by the service provider and network companies so that the consumer can be rest assured about the confidentiality of his work and no threat lies to damage his personal information and data. The various threat that could persist could be various forms of virus , spywares , malware , spies to access confidential data , phishing – to retrieve sensitive information and due to all this there is always is a threat to integrity , confidentiality and authentication process related with it .
There are three basic service which are being incorporated in mobile computing by telephone companies which are as follows
- User Virtual Environment (UVE)
- Mobile Virtual Terminal (MVT)
- Virtual Resource Management (VRM)
User virtual environment (UVE) provides user the same environment which is not related to the present location of wireless device. Even if there is a change in location of wireless device or there is a different apparatus is being used, user virtual environment (UVE) takes care that the same environment is maintained throughout.
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How does the approach compare to other works in the literature?
When the comparison is being done for the approach of mobile computing with the present or similar kind of work , we notice that the three basic services that we have learned which are user virtual environment (UVE), mobile virtual terminal (MVT) and virtual resource management (VRM), we are actually able to give a proper solution for this technology . These services are basically connected together and they provide a co-ordinated and well equipped platform which allows for better and strong connectivity and this does not bother about which technology is being used. Further we also notice that security still poses a serious threat in both the approaches and further measures needs to be takes so that this problem gets resolved so that the consumer does not fall a prey as victim of data theft/loss. Every aspect linked with the security should be taken care of and it should be ensured to keep intact the information, connection, communication and speed. By doing so, breakage of connection would be stopped and that would help in providing better service to the customer and hence the value of the brand will be enhanced and the company can leverage on the better brand in the long run. Interoperability helps a consumer to communicate with the resources which are available, when a consumer moves from one hosting environment to different one. To take care of similar problem, MA research focuses on interoperable and standard interfaces. Further it should be ensured that while making, developing and providing such service; it should be taken into account that this is a very dynamic environment and there are numerous new technologies which are present in the market. So by using any flexible system, it would help in providing better service and value to the consumer. The long acceptance method has prompted the need for programmable network architectures that will ease the s protocol prototyping and deployment.
PART II: Analysis and Critical Review of the Technologies used in Pervasive Systems
Give a critical review of context representation in pervasive systems. Please illustrate your view with examples.
There are basically three services which are being used in mobile computing which are as follows:
- User virtual environment (UVE)
- Mobile virtual terminal (MVT)
- Virtual resource management (VRM)
User Virtual Environment (UVE): User virtual environment (UVE) provides user the same environment which is not related to the present location of wireless device. Even if there is a change in location of wireless device or there is a different apparatus is being used, user virtual environment (UVE) takes care that the same environment is maintained throughout.
It enables the user to connect to internet through various environment and devices and assures a well-established, smooth and stable connectivity. Thus even working in different environment a user can be assured that he will get the same connectivity features.
For example, in a connection established via mobile phone, the user can direct the mobility
– Middleware to stop the heavy attachments which comes in incoming mail.
Mobile Virtual Terminal (mvt): Mobile virtual terminal (mvt) ensures that proper network is maintained even if the mobile device is switched form one position to another, even when there is switching from one cellular network area to another and there is change in geographic location. Here the Mobile virtual terminal (mvt) makes the use of mobile devices and other network which is available in different environment and location, and ensures that the connection would not get terminated even when mobile device changes in cellular network area. It makes a balance and co-ordinate with the other two services; virtual resource management and user virtual environment; and helps in easy and better connection. MVT harnesses MA serialization to Marshal and un-marshal the terminal session state on stable storage media and continue the execution from recovered information.
Virtual resource management (VRM): Virtual resource management ensures for maintain and coordinating the mobile connection. It assures to maintain the given resources and services
So that better and sequential allocation of resources is done and it does not hamper the functioning of the application and implementation.
For example, an administrator can configure VRM to favor locality in resource access and to balance the system load by dynamically redistributing components. Now seeing on the requirements of services and resources discovery, directory solutions are provided by virtual resource management. This solution helps in providing an optimal use and allocation of services and resources.
Thus these three services form an integral part of the mobile pervasive systems and aids in mobile connectivity or other wireless devices connectivity.
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and i-mode are two popular mobile internet services. Give a detailed comparison of the two services.
Wireless application protocol:
Wireless application protocol is open standard that helps in formulating and facilitating in transmission of data (text, audio, and video) from World Wide Web or internet to a cellular device or other wireless equipments or devices. WAP browser is frequently seen in small devices such as mobile phones. It is responsible for both transmission and presentation of the information or data to the cell phones. Before Wireless application protocol was in market, cell phones did not had much options and had very few options , so only few applications could be used to get better services like getting e-mails , multimedia messages , browsing internet and downloading heavy music. Wireless application protocol makes use of internet protocol and is based on internet client server architecture technology for providing information on wireless devices. Wireless application protocol makes use of Wireless Markup Language (WML). Wireless markup language makes use of XML language and it provides navigational support, data input, hyperlinks, text and image presentation, and forms. This facilitates in providing information to mobile or cellular devices.
But there are few disadvantages of using wireless application protocol such as:
- Low bandwidth
- Limited power supply
- Under-specification of terminal requirements
- Constrained user interface capabilities
- Lack of good authoring tools
- Lack of user agent profiling tools
- Difficult to keep mobile devices up to date with WAP services
I -mode technology
I-MODE is mobile internet communication technology which uses packet data transmission technique of data transmission. By using this technology users have to pay for data transferred to mobile phone instead of the time it remained connected. IMODE uses Compact Wireless Mark-up Language (CWML) instead of Wireless mark-up language (WML) which is used in WAP technology.
I-mode is being brought in to plug in the loop holes which are present in wireless application protocol technology (WAP). It has a wider variety of internet standards, including web access, e-mail and the packet-switched network that delivers the data. This technology is being offered by Japan’s NTT DoCoMo. I-mode consumers can access various services such as e-mail, sports results, weather forecast, games, financial services and ticket booking. Since converting existing HTML websites to i-mode format requires only minor changes to the HTML, here the conversion is fast and easy, and so we can see the high rise in the number of i-mode sites.
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I mode was formed in 1999 and since then it has given many better services which outplay the work of WAP and lead to a better service on cellular phone. The use of compact wireless markup language provides added value and advantage to the i-mode technology and serves as a better way of accessing internet and world wide services over internet. But there are few disadvantages with I-mode and the main is that here lies a limit to number of websites that an imode can link to.