This is a solution of online booking project management assignment from which you can understand the importance of project management study
The Oxford English Dictionary defines “project” as “An individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned and designed to achieve a particular aim:” [e.g.] a research project.
A project is a temporary endeavor, which has got a specific and defined start and finish point, undertaken to meet certain goals and objectives.
Projects are limited by time boundary.
Management is to get the things done with minimum resource possible, effectively and efficiently.
Project Management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, controlling, monitoring and managing resources to bring about a successful completion of specific goals and objectives.
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Main Issue: On-Line Booking System in a Holiday Company
It is a holiday company, mainly works on Traditional UK holiday. There will be a smooth upgrade of booking system, as it will move to on-line booking system from the traditional booking by phone and email. With the advent of modern travel technology and e tourism it has become an apparent prerequisite for development of locally rooted travel industries.
Overall System Working Process
- The On-Line booking system allows managing facility through websites.
- The User interface has been designed to be intuitive to use and thus removes the need
- For a User guide.
The system allows:
An Administrator to
- Add facilities and modification of service.
- Booking on line reduces confusion and chance of errors on the side of administrators.
- Air, Train and other transportation facilities can be shown directly to the customers and offer them a basket of choices
- The customers can directly choose from the offered services according to his budgetary plan.
- Add or remove rooms for booking. There are no limits on the number of
- rooms that can be added
- Set-up additional Administrators
- Add pictures of each room
- Activate, reject or delete a booking
- Print reports of bookings
- Output the reports to Excel document.
- Book air ticket, and other tickets of transportation online.
- Book rooms on-line
- Book multi day bookings
- Contact the Administrator directly by email
- Review all of their bookings
- Change or delete their bookings
A Work Flow Diagram or Breakdown of Work Structure:
Developing a Project Management Plan:
It has become the corner stone of many companies; it is one of the tools for organizing tasks and pursuing objectives.
Certain things are required for a successful blue print of a project:
- Long term and short term planning
- Formulation and activation of policies
- Generating procedures.
Strategic planning includes structural and infra-structural changes or triggers them.
It prepares the organization with shorter period of time, adapting or reacting to unforeseen changes or progress.
Cyclical Planning: dealing with regular events. (e.g. activities during a holiday period)
Daily Planning: deals with actions that must be taken immediately within a small time frame.
Contingency planning: deals with measures or actions taken or foreseen in an unforeseen situation.
MBO- management by objective: MBO is a system for achieving organizational objectives, enhancement of employee commitment and willful participation. It facilitates transition of basic concepts into management practice. MBO process is characterized by
- Clarity and balance of objectives
- Rigorous analysis
- Participation of managers with accountability for results
- Relatively high degree of autonomies to employees
- Flexible in nature.
It refers more to a style and approach in management and helps in building creativity. MBWA: an abbreviation used by Scott Adams, about management and business nonsense. MBWA stands for Management by Walking Around until something eventually happens. It stands as the probable antithesis of management, because the latter implies some kind of action or at least planning.
Crisis management: dealing with crisis situation and ultimately mastering in foreseeing any crisis situation and prevent it before it takes place.
Characteristics of A Project:
Projects are –
- Realistic in nature.
- Limited in time and scope.
- Adventurous in nature.
- Can be assessed.
- Made in stages-step by step.
Structuring a Project: Questions to be answered before launching a project
|Setting up Objectives||Context of the project What are the changes it will entail?Why this project?What are the issues at stake?|
|Content of the Project||What is the theme and content?What is the applied methodology?What are the activities?|
|Where and When||Where will the project be implemented?What is the time frame?When does it starts/ end?|
|Practicalities||What logistics are required?What practical aspects need to be taken care of?|
|Budget and funding||What is the overall cost?Where from the fund will come?|
|Method of communication||Internal communication: how does information circulate ?External communication: does it require media coverage?|
|Follow up and evaluation||How and when to be evaluated?Which aspects? Why?What Follow-up is planned?|
Structuring the Project along different phases:
After the planning and blue print of the project is done, it is important to look at the execution level.
For better execution it is important to look at the other aspects like-
- Resource allocation,
- Delegation of authority and responsibility, Controlling and monitoring,
- Evaluation and
Before starting the project the Project Life Cycle must be well defined
A Stakeholder is an individual or group who has interest in the proposed change and influence or impact the success of the change
Overview of Activities:
The process is a System Development Life cycle used by a system analyst, to develop an Information system, including requirement, validation and training and user (stakeholders) ownership.
The SDLC should be a high quality system that
- Meets or exceeds customer expectation
- Reaches competition within time.
- Cost effective.
- Works effectively and efficiently in the current and planned information technology infrastructure
- Inexpensive to maintain
- Cost effective to enhance
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It is equally important to identify the persons who will be absorbed into this project
Persons who can work better in tech-savvy environment and can adapt quickly to new working environment are the prime focus.
Once the identification is done it is important to induct them into that particular project, giving them an overview about the overall blue print and methodology, which is to be applied.
Creating a GROUP: A group is more than two persons who interact with each other in such a manner that the behaviour or performance of one is influenced by the behaviour of others.
FIVE Stages of Group Development Model:
FORM STAGE-Dependent on direction
Members are polite.
Conversations are about safe and acceptable topics.
Avoid disclosure, feed back and try interpreting non-verbal.
STORM STAGE-Bid for power
Unexpressed individual need
NORM STAGE– Real listening takes place.
Progress towards objectives
PERFORM STAGE– High group morale.
Group adopts an identification symbol.
After the group is formed and come to the “Performing stage”, it is now called as “TEAM”. Creating a perfect team can be achieved through proper guidance and direction-a high quality leadership.
A Project manager needs to be an effective leader to make the team perform well.
The approaches in Leadership may be changed to Transformational from Transactional in such a scenario where the system is new, and training and development is required at a large scale to adapt with the changing scenario and huge expectations from both the side of organization and customers.
From TRANSACTIONAL to TRANSFORMATIONAL
- Motivating for performance at expected levels To Motivating for performance beyond expectations
- Initiating structures to clarify roles and tasks To Inspiring for mission beyond self-interest.
- Stressing the link between reward and goal achievement To Instilling confidence to achieve performance.
Generating Motivation and Inspiring:
Motivation: the process of arousing goal directed behaviour.
Motivation depends upon-
- Internal: variables within an individual give rise to motivation and behaviour.
- Process: emphasizes the nature of interaction between individuals and the environment.
- External: Focus on external environmental elements-to-explain behaviour.
Motivation can be generated through
Recognizing needs and fulfilling them.
We may refer to Maslow’s need hierarchy model
Human behaviour follow these stages of need, fulfillment of one need takes him to another level of need
Applying Equity theory can also increase motivation
Equal distribution of work
Recognition is based on performance.
Altering the perception of employees by making them what they actually capable of,
What they deserve now and what they can get if they enhance their potential with minimum effort.
Motivation can be generated through maintaining Job Satisfaction
We can follow Herzberg’s two-factor theory.
He imposed stress upon two factors and called them responsible to provide and maintain job satisfaction.
Hygiene Factors: do not motivate if present but if absent result in demotivation and frustration –eg.- job security, salary, fringe benefits etc.
Motivational Factors: which give positive satisfaction –e.g-challenging work, recognition, responsibility etc.
To maintain a good team we must motivate them and encourage them by increasing inspiration, proper training and development, and maintaining job satisfaction.
Other aspects to be taken care of:
Software Specification: a new updated software version is required to implement the system properly.
Transition Plans: the transition from old process to a new one can be done by various techniques discussed above-creating blueprint, making employees involved through coordination and discussion, motivating them for taking new challenges in a new frontier.
And maintaining job satisfaction with several other HR issues.
Impact on existing system-must be dealt with proper care.
Communication with system developers-Proper communication is needed and it should be both top-down and parallel approach, so that anybody working in the system can raise his query whenever needed without delay.
Customer support-Well managed Customer relationship model is a key factor to win customer support.
Marketing & Publicity:
- An extensive market research must be done using SLEPT analysis; Five force analysis and various other methods.
- Research on consumer behaviour is also needed before placing the new service.
- Market survey can be done by questionnaire method, online survey, mail survey, phone survey, Pilot study, Focus Group interview, etc. to get in-depth knowledge about perceptions of consumers.
Various marketing communication tools can be used for publicity.
- Sales promotion
- Direct marketing
- E-marketing etc.
- Advertisements and publicity can be done through newspapers, radio, hoardings, banners, adds on television etc.
- Telemarketing and direct marketing can work fine as a tool to create publicity.
Personal Development Plan:
In this scenario I may have to implement certain new thoughts and ideas. According to my view, handling a project and being a good project manager depends upon not only
- Hard work but also SMART WORK!!
- I have to make the employees feel that they are working in a safe and homely environment.
- Judge everyone on his or her skills.
- Frequent team meetings
- Generating enthusiastic discussion
- Selecting different persons of different skills and knowledge so that a mulltiskilled group can be formed.
- Monitoring proper functioning of the group.
- Preventing from forming any group within the team.
- Creating high group morale.
- Avoid discrimination
- Provide equity to the extent possible.
- Frequent performance monitoring
- Proper training
- Allocation of duty and responsibility to the right person for the right job at the right time.
As it is a new domain of work, people need to be well accustomed to the coming scenario, before the actual job is to be done.
Some new recruitment can be done based on requirements of job preferably who have similar kind of exposures in other organizations.
Proper training and monitoring is needed at each step.
Development of overall orientation of an employee is equally important
Some internal transfers can be done (from one department to another) to create a combination of new and old employees who have different exposures and can interchange their views, ideas, knowledge and experience to perform as a team and achieve the goal.
This will also provide job rotation and enlargement generating employee satisfaction
Developing interpersonal skills:
Developing interaction with everyone in the team.
- Active listening
- Tone of voice.
- Delegation and leadership
- Mental and communicative algorithms.
Interpersonal skill reduces conflicts and increase productivity in the organization.
Developing Leadership Role:
- After the orientation of the group is done, it is important to establish
- Communication network.
- Identify leader roles.
- Clarify responsibility and authority
- Develop plans for goals accomplishment.
- Resolve interpersonal conflicts.
- Develop participative climate among group members.
- Develop data flow and feed back system.
- Renewal, strengthening of role and interdependencies.
- Strong motivation towards goal accomplishment.
- Emphasis on relationship oriented behaviour
- Becoming more considerate, helpful and supportive of subordinates.
- Recognize effort with reward.
Path-Goal model can be followed for better development of leadership:
Path-leader identifies employee needs
Directive-appropriate goals are established.
Leader-connects rewards with goals
Supportive behaviour-leader provides assistance on employee’s path toward goals Participative behaviour- employee become satisfied and motivated and accepts the leader. Achievement-effective performance occurs motivation both employees and organization better reach their goals. [Also Read: – Essay Road Congestion Problem in Beijing]
Ambiguous Job and role of leader:
- Tell what is expected
- How and when to do it.
- How fits with others
- Schedules and norms
- Procedures and regulation
When followers are lacking self-confidence:
- Courteous and friendly
- Concern for well-being and needs.
- Open and approachable and balance equal treatment.
Building Team: A New Frontier!!
- An effective team leader must make him and his followers understand:
- Think of problems as opportunities.
- Without taking risk there is no reward.
- One needs to think of these as opportunities for innovation
- Dream big and define goal
- Small victories are important in start.
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