This is a solution of Motivational Theories Assignment in which we discuss the chief objective of most people who start businesses is to maximize profit by offering goods or services.
The chief objective of most people who start businesses is to maximize profit by offering goods or services. Some start organizations not to make profits, but to provide needed goods and services. It becomes extremely hard to provide the products solely as the client base increases. Therefore, people require the help of others to sustain their production. The people who start are called employers and those called upon are the employees. It is important for the employers and employees to co-exist peacefully and to have mutual respect for each other. For the production of goods and services, inputs are imperative; raw materials, labor, entrepreneurship, capital and space for either storage, production or both. Labor is very important because, with all other resources, the output cannot be produced without labor. Labor is the factor of production that comprises of all the people tasked with the production of goods and services. To operate effectively and realize the objectives of any institution, it is important to work with people who have the necessary qualifications, skills, and experience.
When someone is employed, there is a need to ensure there is a contract. A contract is an understanding or agreement between the employer and the employee. It outlines the responsibilities, rights, and duties of both the employer and the employee. The assumption is that a contract needs to be a written document. The reality is that the contract can be a verbal agreement. It can also be a handbook for the employee, a letter on the company’s notice board or even part of the offer letter from the employer. Even in the case that the contract is a written document, there is probably some part of the contract that is not always written. For example, an employee should not steal from their employer.
A contract contains many items. Some of the most common include the common civil law section. This section clearly outlines the rights and requirements of both the employer and the employee. The most important is the right of the employee to be assured of safety in the workplace and the employee to perform their duties to the best o their abilities. The section should be formulated in a way that accommodates the laws passed in a country or state. For example, the right of joining trade unions and the sick and maternity paid leaves. The information section which includes the set of rules in an organization (citizen information board). In this section, details of the employer, the workplace, and the employees are outlined. Simple rules that workers and all associates of the organization should abide by are spelled out in this section. There is also a section that explains the grievances and disciplinary procedures. In this section, there is an outline of the how cases of noncompliance are handled. The channels to have your issues as a worker in the organization considered are also explained (Harney). In this section, termination of employment issues is addressed. The procedures and reasons for termination are clearly explained. In the recent past, a new section that prohibits an employee from working in a certain field for a specific time is also outlined in the specific provision of a contract section. And finally the section for the probationary period. This section states the rights and responsibilities of an employee when there is no clear guarantee of the job (citizen information board).
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A contract also provides procedures to change the terms of a contract. This can be caused by the change of the law or agreement between the employer and the employee. In the case where the contract is a written document, signing of the document shows that the involved parties are aware of the terms and conditions and that they agree to the terms. In all employment situations, a contract should be provided and agreed on within the first two months of the employment (Blanpain, Nakakubo and Araki).
In order to achieve the best level of productivity and creativity, an organization’s leadership must start being observant of and responsive to the strengths and weaknesses of the stakeholders of the organization which include the customers and employees. In simple terms, employee involvement deals with allowing the employees to take actively part into objectives of the organization. It involves regarding and valuing the input of each and every member of the organization. Employee empowerment is, however, larger than involvement. It involves allowing the employees the opportunity, tools and authority to undertake a certain well-defined responsibility (Len). The leadership should conduct the SWOT analysis of their employees to be aware of their strengths and weaknesses. With this knowledge, the leadership team can more effectively know where to offer opportunity to be empowered and where there is a threat. This way, everyone is positioned and involved in the area they are most likely to bring most profitability to the organization (Cummings and Worley). The information of where an individual’s abilities best fit and a well-organized human resources team, an organization can be able to know the techniques and where to involve and empower different and specific employees. An organization can involve people by valuing their inputs. It is a need of life to feel appreciated. When an employee feels appreciated, they in turn end up offering their best. Another way to involve employees is by organizing and inviting them to conferences and training opportunities so that they can feel the management is interested in their growth. The leadership of an organization should clearly outline the mandate of the organization. With this clear, they should wisely entrust the employees with the mandate. They should trust employees by allowing them to a certain degree to solve problems they notice. Another way of empowering employees is by giving them knowledge. This can be done by holding training opportunities to the employees (Gallie and Zhou).
Compare the use of motivation theories in an organisation.
Motivation is a force that pushes an individual to do something or to behave in a certain way. In employees, motivation is the force that pushes them to work and deliver results. There are different theories that explain motivation in employees. First there is the need-based theory. Every individual has a need to feel they belong. Therefore, some employees are motivated to work with the need to belong. The assurance that the job is secure and that people will recognize your effort is a very strong force to push someone to work. As long as there is need to belong, the employee will always work hard to maintain their position or improve. The fear of failing and beings sacked which result to feeling unwanted is a feeling that the employee will avoid.
There are many motivational theories but Maslow’s and Herzberg’s are most commonly used in many organization .
The difference between maslow motivation theories
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is a description of needs that motivate Human Behavior. He proposed five different kinds of needs, beginning with the most basic: survival physiological needs, such as food, shelter are followed by safety. Then there needs of love and belonging. Fourth are the human have need of esteem. The last is the need for self-actualization. The hierarchy suggests that basic needs must be met prior the less needs.
Herzberg motivational theories
The two factor theory is a leadership and employee motivation theory in which he argued that satisfaction and psychological growth are the result of two groups of motivation factors. Motivation Factors: achievement, recognition for achievement, responsibility for task, interesting job, advancement to higher level task, growth. Hygiene Factors: working conditions, quality of supervision, salary status, safety, job, company policies and administration interpersonal relations.
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- Maslow’s theory is based on concept of Human needs their satisfaction.
- Herzberg’s theory is based on the use of motivators which include achievement, recognition and opportunity for growth.
- Maslow’s theory can be applied to all kinds of employees.
- Herzberg’s theory is only applicable to white-collar and professional employees.
- Maslow’s theory deals with general motivation and relates to everyone in the society. Herzberg’s deals with work related motivation and applies only to people in the organizations
- . Maslow’s theory believe that financial reward can motivate behavior. Herzberg’s theory believe that financial reward cannot motivate behavior.
Maslow’s theory is a descriptive theory. No suggestions on how to deal with motivational problems. Herzberg’s theory is a prescriptive theory. It suggested job enrichment to deal with the motivational problem. Based on the views of both theories, I believe that Herzberg’s two factor theory is ideal for modern workplace, as his theory refers to hygiene and motivating factors. Hygiene factors dissatisfies while motivating factors motivate colleagues. His theory is more prescriptive. It suggests the motivating factors which can be used effectively. It is also an extension of Maslow’s theory of motivation, just that it is applicability is narrow and where money is less important as a motivating factor. Herzberg’s dual factor states that hygiene factors (lower level needs) such as, supervision, interpersonal relations, physical working conditions and salary do not act as motivators. Only the higher order needs such as achievement, recognition, challenging work, responsibility and advancement act as motivators.
Explain how the results from measuring and managing performance inform employee development.
After all the involvement, empowerment and motivation, the employees are tasked with performing their duties as expected and stated in their contracts. The work of the management is to follow up and measure how well they are executing their duties and helping the organization to achieve its objectives. Performance measurement is done in many ways. Some include the watch and follow up on productivity, efficiency, effectiveness, quality timeliness and safety.
Productivity measures what an individual has produced over a period and with the necessary inputs. In an organization, once employees are involved in the operation empowered and motivated, they should be able to increase the number of products they produce. The products should be finished in good time. Clients are happy and satisfied if their orders are delivered on time. Employers need to see that the work done is effective. This means that the employees perform their duties as per the instructions given to them. In the performance measure, employees should also show that they are efficient. This means that their work should show value and should have used the most minimum resources possible. That is minimizing wastage as much as possible. Employees should also ensure the safety of their workplace. They should ensure that the name of the organization is safe.
As stated earlier, the main objective of any business is to ensure they maximize profits. Other organizations that are non-profit-making also strive to provide goods and services as efficiently as possible. Therefore, performance management is very vital. In performance management, there is a clear outline of the objectives of the organization. The management team also outlines the plans, and steps and processes laid to achieve the objectives of the organization. Performance management shows the comparison between the planned steps and strategies and the actual progress. The management should ensure that at all times the organization follows the plan that was defined with the objectives in mind. When the plan and actual accomplishments are aligned, then the business is following the right track. In the case where the planned progress is behind schedule, then there is under performance and evaluations on how to deal with this are important. When the actual accomplishments are ahead of the time, then management has time to confirm the effectiveness of the progress. Where mistakes have been made, then it is easy to solve the issues.
An example of a firm that has grown because of the four steps to a successful business is the Google. Management of Google ensures that the people they employ have to undertake an evaluation process. This helps ensure that the people they employ are equipped with the necessary skills, qualifications and experience to work there. They organize educative talks and encourage their employees to develop and expand their knowledge base. They allow their workers to have some level of freedom to correct a mistake when they notice it. The employees there are properly motivated. Management is regularly going back to the drawing table to evaluate the progress of the business. The outcome is that Google is one of the largest businesses in the world. It is widely used the entire world and delivers fast and reliable results to the users.
In an organization, for example, A starting organisation has a lot of work to do if the organisation is to compete effectively with other existing organisation. The management of the organization can make progress very easy. This can be done by involving all the workers, empowering them, properly motivating them and following up to ensure the company is still operating on the right track
- Blanpain, Roger, HiroyaNakakubo and Takashi Araki. Regulation of Fixed-term Employment Contracts: A Comparative Overview. Kluwer Law International: Alphen aan den Rijn, 2010.
- citizen information board. “www.citizensinformation.ie.” 24 November 2014. citizensinformation. Accessed 1st March 2015 <http://www.citizensinformation.ie/en/employment/employment_rights_and_conditions/contracts_of_employment/contract_of_employment.html>.
- Cummings, Thomas G and Christopher G Worley. Organization Development and Change.chicago: Cengage Learning, 2009.
- Gallie, Duncan and Ying Zhou. Work organisation and employee involvement in Europe. survey. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013.
- Harney, Mary. “Grievance and Disciplinary.” Labour Relations Commission 20 may 2000: 6.
- Len, Holden. “Chapter 13: Employee involvement and.” Len, Holden. Human resource management:a contemporary approach. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2001. 557-597.
- Miner, John B. Role Motivation Theories. new york: Routledge, 2008.