Q1. What explanations and recommendations would you offer the Board of Directors? Use relevant motivation theories/research, management theories, perception theories, group/team theories and any other OB theories, research and case studies you can to explain and support your analysis of what might be going wrong and how things could be improved for the management and employees at Billie-Jo’s.
Ans :- In organization Billie Jo’s there are multiple variables which are impacting the productivity and efficiency of the employee leading to a higher number of complaints and lower overall production. From case study first reason which is observed is that “there is a lack of motivation level in employees”. In order to increase the motivational level of employee organization can use some very concise strategies which will have both long term and short term implications. Motivational Theories Assignment discusses all these strategies. Recommendations which are made for the board of directors using various motivational theories , frameworks and management theories are as follows.
- It is very much required to a performance management and performance optimization exercise which should align the personal goals of employees with organizational level goals. In order to do so board of directors can link performance of each employee with their annual increments and promotions. This would motivate the employee to optimize their performance and they would also consider promotions as a reward for their improved performance.
- Next recommendation is in context of organizational Performance and its transformation. Since it is mentioned in the case study that there is no formal training program and senior employees are just training junior employees. This type of training would also transfer the laid back and casual attitude from senior employee to junior and there would be less enthusiasm to innovate and outperform. Organizational culture should have more professionalism in it and in order to do so there are many variables like including a formal training and development program, initiating a 360 degree performance review and linkage of performance with the strategic goals and objectives. It is required that champion team leaders and transformational people should be used to lead these changes.
- It is also recommended that employee should be rotated appropriately in different departments and given new projects on a regular basis to break the monotonous job cycle and give them a higher level of job satisfaction. Higher job satisfaction would enhance the productivity and efficiency of the organization.
- Encouragement of innovation and creativity from employee so that organization remains sustainable and competitive in the market is also recommended. To encourage innovation and experiment in the work a mentor mentee program can be initiated where younger employee would be taking calculated amount of risk in innovation under the guidance and supervision of a senior employee. This will enable organization to do some creative experiments with within risk levels and give organization’s product a differentiating factor which is required to dominate the market once again. A mentor mentee program would also encourage higher retention and increase regularity in employees.
Q.2 Can leadership behavior be categorized and explained? Is leadership just management with a different name?
Ans:- As per the lecture notes leadership is explained as Leadership is the process of influencing others to work willingly towards an organization’s goals, and to the best of their capabilities. In simpler terms Leadership behavior is the quality of leading a group of people towards a common cause and goals and it also encourage people to see the vision and seek it as their leader sees it. In my opinion leadership can be categorized and explained because there are many forms of leaderships seen among people like situational leaders, born and natural leaders, transactional leaders and transformational leaders. Leadership theories is dependent on many variables and they tend to behave as a leader as per their type, environment and requirement of the situation. There are formal leaders having legitimate power while some are made leaders because of their authority and their expertise of a subject.
It’s not necessary that a leader will always have formal authority in leadership. The leader may or may not have any formal authority. As per the lecture notes there is no research based evidences supporting that. Hence, leadership is no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait, as situational approaches demonstrated that individuals can be effective in certain situations, but not others. Since then, number of theories on leadership have emerged and are in practice.
As asked in second part of the question I don’t think leadership is just another form of management because there are some inherent differences in a manager and a leader. However there is a possibility that same person can have both qualities or he can be the same person demonstrating both qualities at different times in different situations. By definition the basic difference between a manager and a leader is the way they are having an authority over other. A manager’s authority is over its subordinates which are vested into him by his post ‘position and job role designed for him by the organization. Manager’s job is to get the assigned work done in a logical and pre decided manner using help from his subordinates while a leader is not a formal position or a post.
A leader leads his follower not because of his authority but because of his convincing power and impact on others. A leader have followers with him not subordinates and being a follower is a voluntary decision while being a subordinate is not always voluntary in nature. A Manager’s role in an organization or a system is to plan’ organize and implement an activity as directed by his superiors as per the requirement of his job role. His basic agenda is to coordinate different activities of many employees or subordinates so that they get aligned with the basic aim and objective of the organization. A manager’s role is more pre determined in nature and a manager is usually seen in commercial business organization in comparison to a leader thus making leadership a different quality that management.
Q3. The negative effects of workplace stress to the economy, organizations and individuals are well documented. What is causing this stress ‘epidemic’, why are some people more affected than others and how can organizations and individuals best deal with it?
Ans:- Stress has been classified into three major aspects as discussed in the lecture notes namely individual source, job specific source and organizational source. Stress due to any reason is bad for health and it have both mental as well as physical implications making it very difficult for the employees as well as their supervisors to maintain same level of productivity and efficiency. Entire world is moving in a fast paced life and there is a severe lack of time management as well as proper work life balance. Since previously industries and a fast paced life was only seen in the western civilization work related stress was not spreading like an epidemic but now as business globalization is uniting entire world in business transactions and working culture is growing in every part of the country including third world countries work related stress and its related problems are spreading like an epidemic. We can state that rapid spreading of work relates stress is a side effect of lowering of boundaries and growing economy of the world putting extra pressure on employees and people to work harder.
Stress in work can be because of many reasons like having too much work, very high expectations of senior, having no work or very little work, not having work according to the qualification of the employee or giving too much importance to the work creating a work life imbalance. A work life imbalance will create stress level in a person because he would be unhappy with his family life and his family would be unhappy because of extraordinary working hours. Harassment and lack of resources at work place is also another reason for increased stress level because at times people feel that they deserve a better treatment or they deserve resources to prove their mettle but they are not provided with a chance or means to prove them self. In many offices there is a preferential treatment for some employees creating stress among others because they are being sidelined even if they don’t deserve to be.
Some people are able to handle stress levels in a better manner than others because they know how to delegate work, manage their stress levels, maintain a work life balance and do their work in a systematic and organized manner. It is said by many experts that if managed properly using stress buster techniques and organizing work in such a manner that none of them actually contradict with the personal life then it gets easier to handle the extra work pressure. some people have a flexible approach and they tend to develop a positive attitude towards increasing pressure and take it as another challenge which can be meet while others take it as a burden and succumb under it.