This is a solution of mis application implementation assignment in which we discuss, Developing application and implementation can help your company with my experts best ideas.
This case study has a major issue of implementing a management information system (MIS) implementation in a very famous and growing ophthalmic surgery clinic. The clinic is owned by Dr. Harrison, who is an ophthalmic surgeon and the clinic is a specialist clinic of cataract surgery which has been recently out sourced by NHS (NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES). DR. Harrison is not exactly reluctant to implement the IT system but he is slightly sceptical and hesitant about the success of this new way of doing business. As everybody else he also understands the importance of new technology in today’s business practices. Mr. Collington is the business manager hired for the clinic and His main work area is to develop business for the clinic’ streamline the business process and help in business growth by mergers and acquisitions. He is also responsible to work on business strategy and MIS implementation for the clinic.
Mr. Collington was the first one to suggest the need of a new MIS system in the clinic and he believes in fact that automation is required for future growth. The employees of organization are 5 in number and each have a different level of understanding and enthusiasm about the MIS implementation. The older staff member is somewhat sceptical about new computers but the younger staff members are highly cooperative and enthusiastic about it. The older staff needs to convinced and motivated towards this new development. Training should be given to make the computer system more friendly and usable. Training will also improve the knowledge of overall computer and IT infrastructure system.
A primary research is done by interviewing both Dr. Harrison and Mr. Collington to understand there viewpoints’ their fears and apprehension about implementing MIS. Collington is not very experienced in healthcare industry but he does have a good work experience of working with IT AND IS system. It is also recommended to him that he should demonstrate the benefits to employees and Dr. Harrison by starting a pilot project or by a live demonstration. During implementation certain issues are in evitable to avoid and these minor issues needed to be solved when and where they arise basis. Dr. Harrison is also advised to make his communication better and clearer with Mr. Collington to convey his needs as he is interpreted as looking for cheapest option. He is also advised to give Mr. Collington a chance to prove himself.
Newark Ophthalmic Centre was started by Dr. Harrison as a centre of excellence in cataract surgery and other procedure. The surgeries are outsourced by NHS to them as a part of their healthcare program for common people. The payments for these surgeries are made either by NHS ITSLEF OR INSURANCE AGENCIES as per the condition. Every year the number of patients are increasing and so far the entire scheduling and patient record maintenance procedure is manual and handled by secretaries and employees of clinic. There is also an increase in number of patients getting admitted into clinic also with approximately 600 new patients every year. There are other ophthalmic centres also in nearby area which are working on same kind of procedures and have a well developed and functioning MIS system. To get the competitive edge over its competitors and being a faster performing clinic with its services available online and payment procedures’ billing and accounts process being automated this MIS system needs to be implemented in Newark ophthalmic centre. Dr. John Harrison who is owner of this clinic is a a retired army doctor. This is his new venture and because of the increasing work pressure the clinic workings are getting haphazard and payments are getting delayed by NHS because of delay in data delivered to them for payments also average receivable period has almost doubled. Being from army he has worked in a structured environment and he never had to think about finance and logistics etc as they were taken care of by other experts but now in his own practice he is being concerned by every matter and he is not sure how to solve it. He hired mr. Collington as a business manager and Mr. Collington observed that this clinic needs a complete automated processing system and replace the old manual and semi automatic processes By analysing the need. Dr. John Harrison agreed to invest into computerization after recommendation by mr. Collington but he had his reservations about its success and benefits against expenses so he decided to take help of an external consultant. Collington misunderstood the reluctance of dr. Harrison as problem related with expenses only and tried to solve the problem by cheapest option available. This report is being structured to get the real value of investment and understand the pro and cons of any decision made by Dr. Harrison and Mr. Collington. An external consultant will analyse the whole situation with a third person’s perspective and try to get each and every body’s view point. Dr. Harrison’s knowledge in latest IT AND IS information technology is very limited and he is dependent on Mr. Collington’s advice to make a decision. As a business manager even Mr. Collington understands the problems he is going to face in implementing a MIS system by employees’ owners and technical difficulties also. He tried to get quotations from various suppliers of software and hardware and found 2 vendors fulfilling the needs of clinic but one of them is expensive initially and maintenance is lesser while other is vice versa.
Current scenario and need statement
Currently the clinic is handling approximately 8000 patient files manually by its secretaries and scheduler. Total patient walk in every year in clinic is 3500. Currently the system is that patients are informed about their appointment one day before telephonically by employees of clinic. This kind of system was very old and with increasing patient numbers following this sytem was getting difficult and tedious job by the day. Mr. Collington the business manager was convinced that if process are automated and MIS is implemented the mundane work like scheduling’ informing patients’ data transfer’ billing and payment procedures can be automated and a lot of time and energy of employees and doctors can be used for increasing productivity and growth of clinic.
Billing systems were so slow in transferring there data to NHS that payments are received very late while salaries of employee need to be paid on time so owners sometimes were unable to withdraw their own salary. The data handled by employees was getting too bigger because of increasing number of patient and these records need to manage in a systematic way and there security is also paramount in nature. So the clinic also needs a data management system to keep the records in an organized and protective environment. They immediately needed a database management system to handle the increasing the number of record of patients.
Various literatures about MIS has been reviewed and studied and Secondary research has reviled that there are various methods to implement a management information system The initial investment are very high in a MIS implementation as there is a need of huge infrastructure in hardware’s’ servers’ main frames’ and original soft ware’s and internet connections. There are issues related to employee resistance as employees who are directly affected by implementation and older employees who have to learn to operate these hardware and software are usually resist these changes and they need to be persuaded by demonstrating that these changes are for their own betterment and will be helping them in reducing their work load. (Grover and Pradip kumar, 1999).
Cultural changes is a multi dimensional issue in any organization and changes need to be done from top to bottom and top management should be 100 percent committed towards it. Accomplishment of Management Information System (MIS) in any association or any company will face two major issues during its implementation process. There will be a friction between two cultures during the transition phase of cultural changes and this time need to be handled with diligence and patience. The process also makes some changes in the power structure and roles of various employees. This power shift can lead to a clash and it would be really difficult to make employees amiable to these changes. (Markus, M. L.. and Pfeffer J. 1993),
The top management of the organization has its benefit also in implementing MIS system because that ways they can control the information flow and keep monitoring it for any kind of leaks or corporate espionage. The information transfer became faster and helping the organization taking a faster and more informed decision.(See more about : Environment Study Assignment)
In any organization, change comprises of three stages:
- Unlocking phase:-
During this phase the organization is introduced with the new culture which has interest in changing the culture. The new changes are introduced mostly in a public ceremony or an event and they are introduced with good news.
- Main changes period:-
A lot of Training and support to the existing employees is given to cope up with the changes. These changes are monitored and observed continuously. Employees showing positive changes are encouraged and awarded and employees showing negative attitude and resistance are punished to reinforce the changes. People who are adopting these changes very smoothly and positively are made change leaders and management make them as a role model for others to follow. (Robey and Azevedo, 1994).
- Relocking: –
This phase is after the required changes are achieved in the organization. After this the organization is again freezes or relocked in those changes by making them new minimum standards of performance. This way the chances of employees rebounding older culture are reduced. Still a monitoring committee is kept to keep an eye on any changes in employees directing towards older culture. ( Cabera and Barajas, 2001).
In any organization’s strategic team there is a healthy mix of experts from all streams of business like marketing’ finance’ operations etc. in today’s dynamic business environment the speed of business and decision makes a lot of difference. Faster information means a competitive edge over competitors. so all companies today is looking for a excellent MIS and IT system in place to keep their information flow faster’ accurate’ controlled and on time. These new systems help in making strategy decision and they also helps in improving profitability in such a way that long term benefits came in picture in contrast with initial expenses for implementing the system. ( Rao and Brown, 2007).
The second line of management is middle management. There job is more of tactical in nature than strategic. There decision and thinking process is more of short to medium term in nature. There requirement is more of sectional in nature. They usually need data for their immediate requirement and mostly associated with their own product or departments. These people are usually head of departments’ general managers or senior managers of a department. They work in coordination with other department to achieve the strategic goals of upper management and they need better information exchange system and they get immensely benefited by an IT system.
Operational level management is taken care by lowest level of employees. They are the base of pyramid like technician’ machine operators’ packers’ loaders’ front line workers’ labors etc they are not technically savvy themselves but they will be saving a lot of time when they will be able to get a lot of data available on their finger tips. Daily transactions are smoothened out by providing information on real time basis various workers use MIS for day to day decisions and achieving daily targets. (Orlikowski and Robey, 1992)
ANALYSIS OF RESPONSE:-
it can be observed from the above set of questions (rated at likert scale) that most of the staff members agrees the clinic needs a new IT system if not today then tomorrow. The staff members also believe that solution should not be the cheapest option available. There is one employee who is somewhat skeptical about efficiency of new IT system and she needs some motivation for acceptance. This shows that the staffs of this centre are willing to have MIS implemented.
INTERVIEW FOR DR. HARRISON
ANSWERS ON LIKERT SCALE FROM 1 TO 7 (1 being completely agreeing and 7 being completely disagree)
|Do you think it is important to implement an IT system||3|
|Do you think that working on new system will be complex||2|
|Automation of process is inevitable||2|
|Are you looking for a cheaper solution||1|
|In your opinion Doing manual work is more convenient||3|
|You want to get the complete value out of your investment||1|
|Your solution should be for future years and growth also||1|
|Does IT implementation will make you more competitive||3|
Q2.what is your main motivating factor behind implementing the IT system?
Ans:- improved payment and billing efficiency
Q.3: in your opinion going online also improves communication between clinic and its patients?
Ans:- yes’ usage of emails and website should improve the communication
Q.4: are you open to the suggestion that IT system should be used in other departments also in future.
Ans:- that depends on the success of initial implementation of system in accounts and how much beneficial it would be in other departments.
Q.5 what is your budget for the IT system?
Ans. No i do not have any pre determined budget. I have asked for proposals and will weigh them according to their benefits and cost.
6 do you see any possibility of opening an IT department in future?
Ans:- that is not possible to tell right now . It depends on how much is the need and if growth is sufficient to sustain an IT department for the clinic.
7 do you have any standard procedure or code of conduct and policy in your mind for IT department’s functioning?
Ans:- this is just a start up phase of IT system here. Once we have a proper system in working condition and a fully functional IT department ( if any) then there would be a need of a policy
Q.8 how are you going to measure the success of your IT systems?
Ans:- first of all this talk is about whether a IT system is needed or not. Placing a measuring system will be discussed after we make a final decision about purchase which is yet not finalized.
Q.9 why do you think that IT system will improve your clinic’s performance?
Ans. I am a doctor and it’s not my job to know that. We have a business manager who takes care of that. I am doing this on his advice and taking your consultancy for it. I think it’s your job to tell that IT system will improve the performance or not and how much?
Q.10 do you have any deadline for implementation in your mind?
Ans that depends firstly I need to be convinced that this is going to help my practice and then only i will make a purchase decision. After decision I will like it to be placed as soon as possible.
11 are you using any kind of scientific models for analyzing your business before making a decision ( for ex. Porter’s 5 forces of SWOT analysis)?
Ans . No. please explain what are they and what is their importance
INTERVIEW FOR MR. COLLINGTON
Q1. What is your prime motivating factor towards implementing IT system in Newark ophthalmic center?
Ans: – integration of process and advancement in technological aspect by clinic.
Q 2. How is that beneficial to you personally?
Ans: – career growth and learning
Q.3: Does implementation of IT system will improve the communication?
Q.4: do you think in future all functions might be integrated with IT systems?
Q.5: which is more important for you? Short term expense in IT implementation’ Long term profits? Or both
6 how long do you think it will take to break even the cost of IT system? What would be the approximate expenses according to you will fulfill all the needs of clinic for next 10 years
Ans :- approximately 3 years and expenses would be in range of 70000 dollars.
Q 7 is there any particular strategy or model you are following?
Ans:- in today’s dynamic environment no model can be followed idealistically we need to make some ad hoc changes but general concept remains same.
Q 8 does implementing IT system is also a part of that long term strategy?
Summary of findings
From the primary research it can be concluded that staff in general agrees with the idea of implementing a MIS but with certain reservations. They need to be convinced and motivated slightly so that they can extend their complete cooperation and enthusiasm. They also believe that new system will make processes easier and reduce their work load they have showed interest in the development of IT infrastructure and thus increasing the operation efficiency. Contrary to Mr. Collington’s thinking employees are ready to support and cooperate with new development provided they get convinced that how beneficial it is for them. Employees think that MIS investment should be value for money and not a cheap investment. MIS is implemented for long term profit but not for any short term gains thus expense incurred is bearable.
It is also observed from literature review that implementation of MIS involves risk. Implementing a new IT system will face various human resources’ business strategy and implementation issues. Implementing a MIS can be both a single shot procedure and a modular and phased approach depending upon the requirement of company and its risk taking capacity. Expenses are also a big factor in influencing a decision process.
Observing the complete scenario it can be concluded that Collington approach of MIS implementation is slightly faulty. He needs to improve his communication with dr. Harrison. He is more focused towards cheap investment to make himself in good books with dr. Harrison which is not going to help in longer perspective. Collington has many other responsibilities other than implementing MIS and he should be equally focused among all. Because of too many responsibilities he is not able to remain focused on a single job and he needs to relieve from them. Other employees of organization are also in acceptance of new system and if convinced once how much it is going to benefit them they will be much more enthusiastic and cooperative towards its implementation.
Dr. Harrison also needs to communicate his requirement in a much clearer way. He should also understand the fact that implementing an IT system is going to help his clinic a lot in long term. This will help him get edge over its competitors’ help him grow more in organically and also streamline his processes. In short term it can solve his cash flow problem which is a major concern for him right now.
The recommendations are made for both Dr. Harrison and mr. Collington.
Recommendation for Dr. Harrison: Harrison should know the need of computerization for his clinic. Dr. Harrison should start gaining knowledge of computer himself and take interest in implementation of MIS by himself as the owner and Top management of clinic his support and commitment is much needed for this implementation to be successful. The top management obligation in the direction of the MIS implementation is the protection that is utilized to defeat any challenges. The top management assists help the business to defeat diverse confronts and issues that erects on due course of MIS implementation. (Read more about : Stocks Accounting Assignment Help)
Recommendation for Collington:
Provide training for its employees in MIS system and IT process.
Inform all employees about the advantages associated with implementation of MIS.
To clearly communicate the essence of MIS implementation in the organization as well as to Dr. Harrison he is the expert on this area and his word would be listened and accepted in this field.
Holding general meeting both in formal and informal way to gain trust and confidence of staff members.
Recruiting an assistant for himself so that he can focus more properly on his priorities this will reduce the burden over mr. Collington and he will be able to handle other projects like software development, marketing of new laser technique and inorganic growth of organization by mergers and acquisitions.
O’Brien, J (1999). Management Information Systems – Managing Information Technology in the Internetworked Enterprise. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Krumbholz, M. and Maiden, N. (2001), “The Implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning Packages in Different Organizational and National Cultures”, Information Systems, Vol. 26, 185-204.
Markus, M. L.. and Pfeffer J. (1993), “Power and the Design and Implementation of Accounting and Control systems”, Accounting, Organization and Society, Vol. 8(2), 205-218.
Orlikowski, W.; and Robey (1992), “Information Technology and the Structuring of Organisations”, Information Systems Research; Vol. 2(2), 143-169.
Pliskin, N., Romm, T., Lee, A. S. and Weber, Y. (1993), “Presumed versus Actual Organizational Culture: Managerial Implications for Implementation of Information Systems”, The Computer Journal, Vol. 36(2), 143-152.
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