Question 1 Choose a fast-food restaurant, a department store, or some other organization with which you are familiar, and describe the division of labour and job specialization it uses to produce goods and services. How might this division of labour be improved?
Answer: We take the example of McDonalds in order to explain the division of goods and job specialization. The Division of labour is done in the McDonalds on the basis of job specialisation so that every employee can become efficient in his working manner. There are various roles to be performed in the outlet so some employees would be given front desk job where they will have to talk with the customers and have to accept the order as per customer preference. So employees who specialise in communication and have proper presentation skills are assigned the job at front desk (Fayol, 1921).
The Job of back end operations is given to employees who are good at following the proper process given by the company and prepare the food for customers following those processes. Hence these employees specialised in preparing the food. Hence the division of labour in McDonald is done on the basis of Job specialisation i.e. employee who specialise in a particular work will be assigned that task. This method of labour division enhances the productivity of the organisation as most skilled person is doing task.
Question 2 Apply Taylor’s principles of scientific management to improve the performance of the organization you chose in Item 1.
Answer: Taylor’s principle said that there are few methods following which can enhance the performance of the organisation as well as the performance of the employee as well. The Main motive behind such methodology is through achieving high productivity for the employees so that both employees as well as employers can be benefited through that.
McDonalds can improve their performance by following the scientific management principle. In order to enhance the productivity McDonald should follow the following steps:
- To select the employees suitable for each task such as front desk, delivery, back end operation or serving customers and then proper training should be provided to each employee so that skills of the employee can be enhanced (Richard, 1983).
- Rule of thumb should not be used i.e. every employee should be given specific discrete set of training
- Every worker should be given detailed instructions and supervision for the task performed by him
- The Work in the outlets should be divided between the workers and managers who are managing the outlet so that manager can do planning and worker can perform the task.
Question 3 In what ways are Weber’s and Fayol’s ideas about bureaucracy and administration similar? In what ways do they differ?
Weber’s theory of Bureaucracy and Fayol’s ideas for administration are similar in many situations and ways which are explained as:
- Weber’s theory of Bureaucracy was a social and economic theory and Fayol’s ideas for administration were general and industrial but both theories are related to the hierarchical structure of the organization (Wilson, 1887).
- Both theories explain about the structure of the organization and explain how the parts of the organization interact with each other.
- Both theories give the explanation of the roles and responsibilities of each type of role or the level.
There are various differences in the theories given by the Weber and Fayol which are explained as following:
- Weber’s theory of Bureaucracy is giving more focus on the structure of the organization where as the objective of Fayol’s ideas for administration was to enlighten the management (George, 2004).
- Weber’s theory of Bureaucracy explains how the workers behave and react to fulfil the right of the officers where as the Fayol’s theory explains how the management in organization is planned, organized, commanded, co-ordinated and controlled.
- Weber’s theory of Bureaucracy is applicable in large organizations where as Fayol’s theory is applicable to all type of organizations (Fayol, 1900).
Question 4.5 Which of Weber’s and Fayol’s principles seem most relevant to the creation of an ethical organization?
Weber’s theory of Bureaucracy and Fayol’s ideas for administration both explain how to create a better structure of the organization. Both theories explain how the workers are associated with their seniors. What are the roles and the responsibilities of each and every role and level has is all explained by the theories by Weber as well as by Fayol. Both theories are general and applicable to creation of an organization. When we are creating an ethical organization, then Fayol’s principles are more suitable as these are much explainable to the roles and rights of persons associated to the organization (George, 2004).
Fayol gave fourteen rules of management which helps in achieving five main objectives of the management in an organization: Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Co-ordinating and Controlling.
Fayol’s rules are important factors for making an organization ethical in nature as it is helping in functioning of organization and gives an order. For example, Division of Work rule divides the work among various roles and justify their roles. Authority and Responsibility rule helps the organization in giving order and making control over juniors like workers. Discipline helps in maintaining the working environment of the organization. Unity of Command rule binds each control and command of the organization to a central position or central group of body so that there is no chaos and confusion in giving order and getting work done. Unity of Direction rule is similar to Unity of Command as it integrates the direction and order to the workers so that a worker has to work for one manager. Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest rule explains that there is no individual goal which differs from the organizational goal so every one is working for the organizational goals and the organization can grow at faster and incremental rate and therefore the people also grow. Remuneration of Personnel rule explains how the people get their salary or wages depending upon their performances and skills. So no one is getting dissatisfied and a fair work environment is made. Centralization makes the organization each and every thing and order from a central point and there is no discrimination in any part of the organization in terms of the policy and rules. Scalar Chain explains how the interaction is going. Order makes the things done effectively from juniors or workers as per given by the senior people in the organization. Equity is also an important rule as it makes an organization ethical in nature as people are not discriminated. Stability of Tenure of Personnel and Esprit de corps are also important rules of the Fayol theory which are applicable to the organizations and Initiative rule explains how managers motivate their sub-ordinates (Fayol, 1900). (see solution of Residential Taxation law Australia Assignment)
Question 6 Why was the work of Mary Parker Follett ahead of its time? To what degree do you think it is appropriate today?
Answer: The Work done by Mary Parker Follett who is considered as the center of management thought was ahead of the time in which she wrote that. At that time employers were controlling the workers completely and even many employers were harassing their workers and not much importance was given to the workers of the companies. Hence workers at that could not be given the control of processes based on their work knowledge (Mary, 2003).
But in today’s era management theory proposed by Mary Parker Follett is quiet relevant as the organisations are following the practice where knowledge is given more preference. Hence the workers who are having the more work knowledge than their managers are given the control over the work process so that they can manage the process in their own way. The Benefit of such practice would be to enhance the productivity as more skilled worker would operate the processes and managers should act as facilitator. (Grab Reinvention Research Essay Help)
Question 7 Analyse the INTO organizations and identify those staff who seem to operate with a Theory X or a Theory Y approach to management.
Douglas McGregor gave two theories which explain the organizational behaviour and the nature of the employees or workers in an organization towards work (Papa et al 2008). According to his Theory X:
- Mostly people or workers avoid to do work and they do not like the kind of work.
- People work under pressure and punishment only as they like to work only when they are controlled or directed by some other forcefully.
- Employees or the workers avoid to take initiative as they do not like carry the responsibilities on their head.
According to the Theory Y which is also known as Human Relations Theory:
- Physical and mental effort in work is act as play / rest.
- Punishment and pressure is not only factor of their work.
- People like to have responsibility as they learn the work and do the work to carry some responsibilities.
- People are motivated by the objectives of the work that they are doing and the rewards of their achievement.
Most INTO organizations are having mixture of employees working as per Theory X and Theory Y depending upon their
own level and thinking. Some employees which are having negative thinking and not motivated by the environment follow the Theory X where as most of the employees follow the Theory Y as every body wants to grow personally along with the organization.
Question 8 What is contingency theory? What kinds of organizations familiar to you have been successful or unsuccessful in dealing with contingencies from the external environment?
Contingency theory is the theory that explains that there is one theory of management that is complete in itself as per the circumstances and situations. There are various contingency theories which are applicable in different situations and external environments of the organizations so no one can say that a particular contingency theory is always applicable to a particular organization (Woodward, 1998).
For example, Fayol’s theory of administration is applicable to all type of organizations irrespective of the type and level. But the various rules like unity of commands, unity of direction, etc. are not applicable if we take the case of the modern companies or multinational companies as each employee is working for 2 or more projects and he is working under the guidance of multiple senior people. Similarly if we take the case of Weber’s theory of bureaucracy, it is applicable to large organizations where it determines the roles and responsibilities of each level. But this theory can be failed when there is no hierarchical nature of the employees. Similar we can take the case of Taylor’s theory.
Question 9 why are mechanistic and organic structures suited to different types of organizational environment?
As per Contingency theory there is no particular theory which is well suited to all organization or there is no such theory which is always applicable in all situations (Burns et al 1961). So there is situational implementation of theories on the organizations. Burns and Stalker inferred the new theories of Mechanistic and Organic Structures based on the theories of Weber’s and Fayol’s theories.
Mechanistic structure defines the central and unified authority and command at the top most level of management. Orders are passed from top hierarchy to lower hierarchy and hence a vertical chain is maintained for co-ordinating and controlling the lower level employees, the supply chain management and this management is interrelated to each other. The roles and responsibilities of each level are not well defined but the employees are closely observed and a proper discipline is maintained (Pugh, 1990).
Organic Structure defines the non-central and diversified authority and command in the organization. Here the managers are motivated to take responsibility and initiatives and work towards the goals of the organizations. Here the organization is divided into departments, divisions and cross divisions and hence there is no interference between them. If some thing happens badly, then the actions are taken immediately to recover that thing. Hence it is a better approach.
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- George Ritzer, Enchanting a Disenchanted World: Revolutionizing the Means of Consumption, Pine Forge Press, 2004, ISBN 0-7619-8819-X, Google Print, p.55.
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