This is Literature Review Apprenticeship Dissertation Help in which we discuss Concept of apprenticeship, apprenticeship in a beauty salon, roles and responsiblity of mentor, goals and objective of apprenticeship.
Chapter-3: literature review
In this section of the study it has been tried to answer the research questions by thorough and extensive literature survey. The study of the literature has been summarized in a nutshell focusing on the objectives of the study. It has been tried to find a gap between the proposed reports and research findings and also the scopes and limitations regarding apprenticeship in beauty salon. The research questions which were raised during the study has been tried to examine in detail, and discuss about through literature survey.
Countries are now promoting small and medium enterprises, and entrepreneurships to enhance economic growth, and apprenticeship is undoubtedly being helpful in promoting entrepreneurships (Felstead, 1991). Apprenticeship is fruitful in boosting self dependent economical growth as well as skilled manpower, through continuous learning and improvement. In this research it has been tried to look into various aspects of apprenticeship, its operational methods, benefits and problems in a nutshell. From the following research and analysis of literature it can be concluded that policies and standards should be improved and upgraded for apprenticeship from time to time. Apprenticeship can be considered as a transition of a person from inexperienced to professional roles expert in a particular professional field (Marsick & Walkings, 1990). Governments in many countries has promoted apprenticeship as a part of youth development programme, and no doubt apprenticeship has paved its way in the education and training systems proving itself as a tool to sharpen skills, enhance and gather knowledge and experience (Drucker& Stanworth, 2002). Many developed countries are now considering apprenticeship as a channel to university, especially in branches like other job oriented form of education.
This research paper examines the various aspects of apprenticeships, its future scopes and prospects, how it is done, what are the drawbacks etc in detail. In this following annotation it has been tried to answer the questions, in a nutshell, which are raised during the research. Now the research methodology aim can be narrowed to two three main focused points like, how apprenticeship helps in boosting economic growth and self dependencies in young adults? What are the benefits of apprenticeship, and how apprenticeship works in beauty salon? What are the roles and responsibilities of an apprentice in a beauty salon etc?
3.1 Concept of apprenticeship
The study opens with the very concept about apprenticeship and how it has evolved as a learning model. Researchers consider Apprenticeship as a training tool, which is structured to make an individual professionally skilled in a particular trade and craft. (Bidelle & Hamermesh 1998),have described that, apprenticeship programmes are structured in such a way that it bestows a person with developed technical knowledge and expertise, implementation of theoretical knowledge in practical application, while offering him a chance to earn at the same time, learn the tricks of the profession and accumulate sufficient experience on a particular professional field. The recent researches by Drucker Et al (2008), has shown that there are now thousands of occupations in USA and UK, facilitating an atmosphere for growth in apprenticeship. Apprenticeship duration ranges from one to five years depending upon the career or occupation chosen. The model of apprenticeship training programme is unique in a sense that it amalgamates education system with government, industry, employers and society as a whole (Felstead & Unwin, 2007). Apprenticeships are usually funded by industries and it is generally business driven. Being industry oriented in its basic approach it spreads a platform where theoretical knowledge gets implemented in a practical scenario, classroom lecture collaborates with hands on experience, on the job learning. Apprenticeship develops specific skill set in a person, and hence without proper support from industry and government the benefits of developing marketable skills and experience cannot be gained (Bitner, 1992). Apprenticeship is a way of learning to work which has been implemented with success right from the medieval times. According to Foster & Howard (1998), an apprentice is a person, who develops specific knowledge and job skills analysis in a well structured coordinated and collaborated work learning manual, through a particularly engineered training programme under the State owned and approved Apprenticeship Standard Division. To be registered under the state owned acts of apprenticeship programme a person should have the attitude to learn, aptitude to be adaptable, and learn the professional tricks of a particular trade or craft (Sussmuth, 2006).
Apprenticeship is generally an employer sponsored program and can only be rendered after an individual has adequate and requisite general education (Hochschild, 1993). Apprenticeship has been an integral part of the education from time immemorial, but the significance of the term has changed over the years (Drucker et al, 2002). This variation in the significance and concept may be accounted to the different ways in which the social, political, economical and historical contexts were arranged. Add to these the global factors namely changing skills, supply and demand etc. and we get a picture how the significance has changed over periods. Through apprenticeship, apprentices build their careers. Bulk of the training is undergone while the apprentice works for the employer, who in turn teaches the apprentice the trade of his/her, profession. They also work according to a pre-agreed arrangement where the apprentice is needed to work for a specific period of time and achieve measured competencies. Through apprenticeship, an individual can enter the job market more easily. In an apprenticeship program, one gets benefit from both the theoretical and the practical aspects. Apprenticeship as a concept has been prevailing from the middle Ages (Borghans & Duckworth, 2008). It still remains an effective form of training and development. Apprenticeship is a way to be adept at the skills and practices that are associated with a proposed career option. The apprentice is trained under the guidance of a recognized expert campaigner of the craft (Pfann Biddle & Hamermesh, 2000). Then over a period of years, the individual is trained in all aspects of the craft till the apprentice is able to go out in the market and function independently and efficiently. Along with its significant role of employing youths, the industry also provides necessary ideas on constant modifications which are absolutely necessary to keep the trend in sync with the industry requirements and benchmarks (Billett, 2001). Classroom and on the job learning of the work processes can also be guided by the industry. Founders always show interest in the assurance of continuity of the firm created by them, especially in the transition stages in terms of succession. In the works of Drucker (2002), he has shown that industries are not just interested in the volumes of sales bringing in high number of cash flows along with financial benefits, although they want those benefits as well. They are also concerned about the mergers made with any competitor as that will ruin the unique value proposition that have taken their entire lives to get created, as they are going to be a unique entity after the strategic alliance (Entreleague, 2013).
Apprenticeship involves hiring of new apprentices whose goals is to understand and learn all the dimensions of running a business and develop basic business skills for a considerable amount of time (say 3 to 5 years) so that they can take hold of the business after the apprenticeship taking ownership of the same by purchasing it (Fuller & Unwin, 2004). This is not like a typical sale of business involving monetary transaction and the ownership gets changed immediately. In the works of Foster & Howard, (1998), they have shown that veteran entrepreneurs can hire aspiring ones to grab specific untapped opportunities that are beyond the development of them or their people due to lack of time or skill. To be very honest, apprenticeship situations demands the veteran entrepreneurs to initiative to lead the apprentices through the initial stages so that they can proceed steadily and develop their skills as well. There are several initiatives which help the experienced entrepreneurs to organize such arrangements and select apprentices too (Foster & Howard, 1998).
Though there is strong belief that workplace learning creates and builds professionals, and it helps in building practical experience, which is utmost necessary to learn trade tricks, and achieve success, some researchers believe that class room learning can be more helpful in making sense of the practical scenario (Tombs, 2003). No doubt that practical knowledge is of great importance but classroom theories can be learnt and applied to workplace. The cognitive learning model of apprenticeship describes that learning is preceded by six major steps, exploration of theories, modeling, coaching, scaffolding, fading, reflection and articulation of the learning process and outcome. Theories are learnt, and applied as needed in the practical situation (Foster & Howard, 1998).
The apprentice perspective, a theory of apprenticeship, focuses on the learning process by integration of professional practices and classroom theories and lectures. Apprenticeship programmes helps one understand the informal knowledge, or the tacit duties and responsibilities of a profession which was never really taught in a classroom (Honschild, 1993). The skills, talents and knowledge of the apprentice is also acknowledged and many a times taken into consideration for integration in the work culture and procedures. Young and enthusiastic individuals can bring energy and new thinking to a workplace (Korczynski, 2002). In course of time, they may very well become loyal employees and individuals that value their jobs. Some investment of energy and time is needed in their training, but after that the employer can cash on the apprentices’ youthfulness, positive energy and enthusiasm (Lave & Wenger, 1991). In turn the employer or the trainer should help the apprentice achieve his/her desired goal through the apprenticeship/traineeship (Marsick & Watkins, 1990). Age of the apprentices may generally vary from 15-18 years. It can only start after an individual finishes his/her general education assignment. For some apprenticeships there may be a cut off for age i.e 18 years may be. But for individuals having age more than 21 years, it may be difficult to find a company to do the apprenticeship. Different rules and regulations in different countries govern the apprenticeship programmes for different professional fields (Korczynski, 2002).
The picture below describes that apprenticeship has many dimensions and class room lectures are not sufficient to fill the gap of professional expertise.
Unemployment, especially for the youth, among the age group of 16-24, has been a severe problem, which is becoming almost chronic, for UK government. Government focuses on vocational training to prepare the young adults for jobs and boost up the economy to be competitive in global market (Fuller & Unwin, 2004). Successful economies like Germany, Switzerland focused on, on the job learning and vocational trainings, rather than pining hopes on classroom lectures and examinations. But there is always a doubt whether the government and the citizens will be able to adapt to the idea of apprenticeship (Honschild, 2003). A survey shows that teenagers in Britain lose interest on apprenticeship very easily, or they struggle to fit the duty hours within their daily routines.
In UK apprenticeship is a part of the training and education programme for children above compulsory school age, but under the age of nineteen. Their apprenticeship programme comprises of local programmes, outside the school campus as well as within the campus (The National Archives, UK Government, 2013). The nature of the job basically involves learning basic professional handling, enhancing knowledge, sharpening skills, assessing their aptitude, attitude building etc. In the government report by The National Archives (2013), it can be seen that apprenticeship programmes for persons above the age of nineteen, but under the age of twenty five, comprises of difficulty assessment of a profession, learning key tricks to run a successful business, learning management roles and responsibilities, financial details, market conditions, market analysis market demands, business promotional tricks etc.
See the first part, Introduction of dissertation on apprenticeship program UK assignment>>>
3.2 Apprenticeship in a beauty salon
After graduating from a beauty school, an individual should consider undergoing an apprenticeship in a beauty salon before trying his/her hands at the industry (Bidelle & Hamermesh, 1998). This may not sound that appealing since after finishing studies, one remains eager to get a feel of the job world. But this is the best step to take before joining a full time job. Bidelle in his work (1998) has shown that working as an apprentice in a beauty salon means a person needs to improve the wellness of individuals by making them look and feel better. When a person looks good he/she normally feels good (Eayrs, 1993). So it is necessary for an apprentice to make the clients look good and thrive to make them feel good. A person also gets to learn what keeps the client craving to come back for more. The therapies cover treatments across a wide range, starting from facials and make ups to waxing and others (Habia, 2002).
According to another research done by Habia (2004), when one works as an apprentice in a beauty salon, she will firstly be in charge of greeting the clients. After that, most of the time will be spent watching the senior professional experts doing their job, like applying make up, etc. One will be taught to do the basic hygienic jobs like cleaning the brushes, disposing the wax strips, washing the utensils used, cleaning the towels etc. Additional responsibilities can be put on his or her shoulder like holding eyebrows while threading, adjusting electronic gadgets while doing a hair or body spa, or giving client an ozone therapy (French & robins, 2009). One may be told to keep an eye on the replenishment of products, like creams, gels, and other necessary materials. Expert stylists call for assistance in blow drying, colouring and grey coverage etc. Gradually one will be taught to handle massage gadgets; use of aroma oils in various therapies, technical specifications and details about installation and maintenance of Jacuzzi, sauna bath, steam bath etc (Mobius & Rosenblat 2006). While assisting the stylists and experts an apprentice have the best chance to interact with the clients, watch and observe their comfort and discomfort zones, understand their psychology and need and analyze how to deliver service in a better way. Generally the work given to an apprentice is almost the same as that of a Salon Assistant, the difference being that an apprentice receives more instructions and guidance from the stylists and experts. One also assists in performing various kinds of beauty therapies under the experienced guidance of senior therapists (Mobius & Rosenblat, 2006). While working with them is a learning experience in itself, one will also learn the specific touch point of the trade. This includes a wide range of skills, namely waxing of body hair, how to apply makeup, plucking eyebrows and in turn shaping them and colouring them, spray tan, methods to perform hand and foot massage, manicure and pedicure and different types and essentials oils and creams being used, face and body skin polishing, prevention of ageing and wrinkle, etc (Norton & Han, 2008). Body tattoo, piercing and other body parts like body painting, body polishing, body spa, slimming and trimming, zone wise fat reductions should be learnt during this period (Pfann & Biddle, 2000).
On being upgraded to Advanced Apprenticeship, one will be working as a beauty therapist. In course, one will learn more advanced techniques like body massage and treatments that employ electronic devices to make the clients devoid of unwanted body hair and improve condition of skin as well. In the final stage of apprenticeship period one learn different and difficult makeup styles like wedding and bridal makeup and hairstyles, cocktail party make up, corporate looks etc. Usage of fabrics in clothes and dresses, colour combinations of clothes and apparels, accessories, usages of makeup brushes, pancakes, spot-concealer, eye liner, eye shadow, mascara, lipsticks and lip gloss is learned with professional minute observation and experience (Mobius & Rosenblat, 2006). As an apprentice at a beauty salon, one need to have the quality to put the clients at ease, help and assist them releasing their stress. A person’s appearance needs to be sober and pleasant. Clients should feel at home with the salon employees around him (Norton & Han, 2008).
3.3 Roles & responsibilities of mentor
The mentor has a great deal of responsibility in training the apprentice. As this is a service oriented profession, and the point of origin and point of consumption is the same, the problems to satisfy customers are even more. The mentor has to monitor each step an apprentice takes, more so because he or she is a learner (Ritts & Tubbs, 1992). Mistakes in beauty treatments can be proved from harmful to dangerous if not taken care seriously. Many customers are impatient about their treatment results, many are disillusioned by fashion magazines and advertisements, many have the nature of complaining about the treatment processes, or product using (Wisely & Fine, 1997).
The mentor has to be careful about teaching an apprentice about treating a customer. In beauty business, people are generally conscious about how they look (French et al, 2009). Psychologists say a person can look good only if he feels good. It is important to make your customers feel good about the salon, their treatment processes, behavior of the employees etc. In a study done by French et al (2009), it has been cited that a wrong haircut or a bad Botox job can ruin a customer’s total look, so mentors responsibility is to assess the apprentice’s level of expertise and give him tasks accordingly in a stepwise manner. Like hair cutting should be practiced on dummy head of hair, during service training period. Many a times customers ask to perform a haircut, which will not match his/her face cutting, or a skin treatment not suits his or her skin type. A mentor’ s responsibility is to teach the apprentice about skin types, hair types, skin tones, which treatment suits which skin and hair, what age needs what type of treatment etc (Mueller & Plug, 2006). Learning the detail about body is not sufficient, if a salon artist is unable to explain why differentiation is important when it comes to beautification of body. It is equally important to make understand your customer what is best suited for them. In a study done by Tombs & Kennedy (2003) it was mentioned that mentor should also teach about group work like keralian or thai message therapies, usage of aromatic or ayurvedic products and treatments. Often a customer undergoing a treatment is prohibited from using certain creams or products, or there may be some restrictions on diet. It should be carefully monitored before making any restrictions on someone’s daily routine, or diet plan. Diet plan should never suffer from lack of food value, and hence it should be monitored and explained carefully. One should also learn fashion tricks like wearing right shoe with right dress and carry a classy clutch bag with an off shoulder or little black dress (Wisely & Fine, 1997). It is equally important to learn the colour about eye shadows, which nail paints suits what dress, what shade of lipstick should be put on in specific occasion, in daytime beach party or in night cocktail parties.
3.4 Goals & objectives of apprenticeship period
In this research it has been tried to summarize the various aspects of apprenticeship, with special focus on apprenticeship in beauty salons. An apprentice engages himself in a job that gives him hands on experience, enhance skills and knowledge, learn the little tricks about a profession etc (Felstead, 1991). The goal of an apprenticeship period is to gather maximum knowledge about the field, the customer base, knowledge about the competitors in the same businesses, entry and exit barriers etc. while the objectives of the apprenticeship period is to examine the scopes and limitations of the profession minutely, assessing difficulties that may come across, and focusing on resolving the professional problems, learning management of the particular business, finance handling and most importantly learning about customer needs, demands and mind set (Felstead, 1993). The outside classroom learning actually gives a chance to taste the professional field. Gradually an apprentice should learn about brand establishment, promotional activities for business, learn about improving PR skills, improving communications with customers through customer relationship management etc (Billett, 2001). Also a person learns about the culture and trends of the industry from a close distance and hence can apply the gathered knowledge in a fruitful way to improve business.
Major focus of the apprenticeship period is primarily laid upon how to earn money and grab job opportunities. But it is equally important to learn every minute detail about the business, starting from how to clean your eye shadow brush and hair combs, waxing manuals to the latest fashion magazine’s cover girl’s outfit and accessorise. Beauty therapists mostly find their base in beauty salons. Some, though, may work with the resorts and hospitals. They also have exciting career opportunities in the cruise liners. In all, it can give one a glamorous career prospect. With adequate and expert training in the field, there is every chance that one can work as a makeup artist for television or films.
One may also play vital role in the development of new products by applying your on-the-field experience. People who have done a course in aromatherapy or ayurvedic treatments may open their own product line ups (Ritts & tubs, 1992). Many beauty therapists open their own salon. If the business grows big, they can transform it into a chain of beauty salons, in country as well as abroad. Often the product portfolios get so popular that they are sold worldwide as cosmetics or lifestyle products. As a beauty therapist, one may also work for individual clients (Mueller & Plug, 2006). Most individuals who are a part of the glamour world prefer keeping their own makeup artist, and beauticians. Beauty therapists have a good chance of lapping such offers.
During the period of apprenticeship one also learns about trade tricks along with basic skill set and expertise. Like how to greet customers, how to maintain customer data base, replenish stocks, maintain cleanliness and hygiene, how to be good with PR skills, how to improve interpersonal skills, and gain expertise in customer relationship management (Sussmuth, 2006). It is also important to listen to your customers, have patience, explain them in detail, update and educate them about latest trends and fashion, while giving them profound knowledge about what is best suited for them. Like a revealing outfit may look good in a night disco, or a beach party, but the colour of the dress, eye shadow and lipsticks got to be different (Wisely & Fine, 1997). Also customers must be taught about carrying right accessories, wearing right shoe with right dress. One should not commit fashion faux pass in a corporate gathering by wearing a dazzling off shoulder night gown, neither one should wear blue eye shadow or shocking pink nail paint with white wedding gown. Fashion sense is equally important to learn to excel in beauty business (Tombs & Kennedy, 2003).
After having completed the apprenticeship, one can go on to become a specialist. To do so one would be requiring pursuing higher studies in specialist areas. Some such areas are reflexology (Application of physical pressure to the feet, hands or ears with concerned thumb, other fingers and techniques of hand without using oil or lotion), hydrotherapy (using water to relieve an individual of his/her pain), aromatherapy (use of plant materials that are volatile, better coined as essential oils, and other aromatic chemical substances for changing a person’s mind and mood or health) and massage (Hodkinson & Bloomer, 2001).
As an apprentice, one may be offered various roles. These depend upon the level of apprenticeship. When you are in the Intermediate Level of Apprenticeship, one may need to engage in the roles of Junior Beauty Therapist and/or Junior Make Up Artist and/or Beauty Consultant. After reaching the next level i.e the Advanced level of Apprenticeship, the roles that one may need to play are Makeup Artist, Beauty Massage Therapist and Beauty Therapist. Generally, an apprentice gets paid the minimum wages. But in many cases, the money comes in form of tips from the clients. The salon stylist may also tip one on the way out at the end of the day. But it is advisable that an apprentice, who is fresh out of college, should consider this as more of an investment which will earn you rich dividends in the long career to come.