Essay on Gender Pay Inequality

The essay on gender pay inequality answers the things such as Why does the gender pay gap exist? Should stronger legislative measures be implemented to ensure pay equity in workplaces or should such decisions be left to the market? This essay solution is provided with context to United Kingdom

Essay on gender pay inequality

The male/female gender wage pay gap (which is also known as gender wage gap, male to female income wage difference, gender gap in income or earnings, gender wage earnings gap, or gender income difference) is defined as the difference between male as well as female earnings in income which is expressed as a percentage of the male earnings which females earn, according to the OECD.

The European Commission also defines it as the basic average difference which is between men’s as well as women’s hourly earnings in wage or salary. It is also generally suggested that the wage/income gap is because of a difference of causes, which is also known as discrimination in hiring of people, differences in their education related choices, discrimination in their salary negotiations by employers, differences in their types of employed positions which are held by men as well as women, differences in their payment of salaried jobs men will typically go into as opposed to the women (especially which is highly paid high risk related jobs), as well as differences which are present in related amount of work experience, as well as breaks in their employment. However, there is always discussion over what is the portion of the wage related gap which is present due to explicit discrimination due to gender. It has also been claimed that most of the 30% of the wage/salary gap is caused due to gender related discrimination, though most of the scholars argue that the wage gap is mostly caused by women’s career related choices (Salverda, Bazen and Gregory 2001). {See essay on  UK Unemployability Issue }

Gender pay gap has been present since ages and has been talked about by a multitude of theories and frameworks which have been derived via a complete wide range of academic disciplines or intellectual ideologies. Maximum of these theories and frameworks have been starting from the logic to account for the degree as well as persistence which is required to analyze gender discrimination. Multitude of economists have been approaching this issue from a very different perspective which is needed for their aim to account for lots of points for gender pay differences which are present within the standard tool age of economic theories. There are differences in pay which are taken, if not proven otherwise, as the proof of differentiation in productivity as well as differences in preferences which is present between men as well as women which is with respect to their involvement in wage related work as well as their investment in skills. Although Policy and framework intervention, wherever required will act as on factors which are outside the labor market which will be constraining choices or influencing preferences; intervention which is required to influence pay levels to employees or structures which are present within the labor market which is held to be very much unwarranted (Dasgupta and Ray 1986). {Click to get labor law Assignment}

Women have been perennially seen as economic dependents and have been working as receivers of ‘part’ wages. There have been multiple reasons for that. The most powerful logics which are making the women’s lower salaries is the logic that by reason of their family and home maker role, women have been in less need of wage income when compared to men. Men have been seen – by organisations, organisational trade unions as well as national and state governments – as being in requirement for a living wage. Women’s wages are in very much in contrast as they are rarely compared to any of the concept of the need or cost of being a part of social reproduction. There is a notion that women’s labor supply is not at all connected to social reproduction costs which have been applied at multiple levels of analysis for wage parity (Humphries 1995). Read here Global trade and markets

The approaches we review here reject this premise for gender pay un-equality, namely that the labor market have been a neutral force which is present in the generation of gender pay gaps. Instead of acting as neutral arena of labor exchange, the operation of the labor market is very much structured as per the power relations between the economy and wider society. There are labor market institutions as well as policies like those of minimum wages which can only work to intensify or to work to modify all of these inequalities in power. Also, the important point is that the labor market is very much present in any of its social as well as economic environment where the actors which are present within the labor market have been operating as per the rules and norms which have been generated for the long term of future as well as have not necessarily or immediately working to accommodate to novel patterns which are present in labor behavior (Acker 1989).

There have been multiple issues for presence of gender pay gap. First, there is the presence of the issue of total wages: women are always looked to be able to take part-time jobs even though fewer and fewer part-time jobs have been providing them with sufficient income opportunities to support as well as meet multiple adult’s living costs. Secondly, women have been also assumed to be working for work at hourly wages which, if available in full-time work method, would never be wholesome to present them with a living wage. Thirdly, even in Western states of welfare, the alternative wages which are available to a woman have decided not to take a low wage jobs which is often possibly zero. Women have been less likely than men to be able to secure the social security as well as unemployment benefits which have been present in the West so that they can ensure that wage levels will not fall below their needs even in a case of crisis like recession or family disaster. Whenever we have been looking for the implications which are present for poverty reduction of the national minimum wage which is present in the states, that has regularly promoted equalized pay which would provide different yet suitable alternative justification for having the logic for the national minimum wage. However, in practice there always has been the lookout at redistribution effects in the country and they have been able to point their fingers at the positive poverty reduction effects which are present for the national minimum wage policy as well as have been, therefore, the logic of promotion of equal pay as well as poverty reduction for this context which can be seen to be complementary to each other (Cortez 2001).

There are various eligibility conditions which are required for access to unemployment related benefits which are predicated only on continuous full-time employment in the labor market, for a male member rather than being given on a female form of participation in the labor market. There are places where benefits have been paid on the logic of means of testing which is present at the household level, fewer and fewer women without work are being eligible for the benefits than men which are usually present in households when compared the male member of the house. The factors which have been constraining women’s labor supply to the labor market under these conditions have been the opportunity costs of their working (which are child care and elder care costs majorly) as well as the level of total family income. If the need arises for them to supplementary household family income is very much in need, women have been facing fewer options to select other than to accept a lowly paid work even when the country has the context of facing relatively well developed welfare systems (Fagan, Plantenga and Rubery 1995).

There is always a need for stronger legislative measures to be implemented so that they can ensure pay equity in different workplaces. A workplace practice to make it possible. There should not be a desire to leave such decisions be left to the market. For women, therefore, often the most valid protection against for having to take a low wage related job is not related to unemployment benefits but having a minimum wage protection can help this ideology which will quash that women are less ‘needy’ than men – and in particular that will make this to be considered at the household level which will continues to empathize with public policy debate as well as academic analysis for the role of minimum wages (Dex, Sutherland, and Joshi 2000). In the United Kingdom, the federal government has defended its major decision to remove wages councils which have set minimum wages to be present in selected industrial sectors, which is majorly on the logic that maximum of the workers are women they are not belonging to low income families or households. Even when we have the supporting academic literature, minimum wages have been seen as having a good redistributive framework if it is able to distribute income more towards families which are classified as low income households; which have the need for income redistribution towards individuals as well as to women in specific, so as to provide the middle class income women with income independence along with wage form of security which will help them in the face of household fragmentation which is not really given weight in the policy debates over minimum wage to abolish income gap (Hartmann 1979).

In an idealized globe, there has been promotion of pay equality for women as well as other disabled or disadvantaged groups which would involve both general frameworks like having a minimum wage legislation for general policies and having more targeted policies which will deal with specific problems of pay inequality which is very much related to job related segregation along with specific aspects of the pay structure which would then affect the disadvantaged sex or any other related or unrelated group. There has been deep influence of all of these factors which has to be understood in a much more historical context, whereas the notions of both the family wages while on the one hand the component wages have affected the rates of wage which are associated with specific occupations. It is very much less clear what the arguments will be if they were found to be very much in contrast to one or the other. While this idea is straight forward in multiple academic literatures, most of the employers, which are present at least in the West, would probably be denying that any kind of family related situation or gender related influences can affect the rates which are paid for specific occupations (Salverda, Bazen and Gregory 2001).