OZ Assignment brings you E-Crime Technology Assignment, portraits the Social Conception about E-crime
E-Crime is a method of a criminal offense where computers or other electronic devices have been utilized to aid the execution of the offensive activity. To protect oneself, it is important to recognize the dangers of e-crime. Many authorities and agencies exist, which are equipped with best available technologies to counter e-crime, that coordinate and investigate such matters. Protection against e-crime requires design and implementation of appropriate system failure procedures, which ensure the safety of equipment and storage devices. It is essential to secure and protect identification numbers and passwords, while changing them regularly and also regularly monitoring the firewall and dial-up facilities of the users. Installation and regular update of virus protection are necessary, and one should avoid opening suspicious e-mails and attachments and report the matter regarding bank or any other online transaction discrepancies to the police if needed (Jaishankar, 2007).
Saudi Arabia has been identified as the most vulnerable nation subjected to e-crimes, such as website hacking and system penetrations. Hacking attempts in the last 9 months have reportedly caused 796,000 crashes in Saudi Arabia, most of which were related to credit card and bank information frauds . Saudi-based Al-Watan newspapers were reportedly hacked following the sacking of a religious cleric working in the Senior Clerics board of the kingdom. The number of attacks on government websites has increased, in the wake of which Saudi government has declared a $3 million fine regarding cyber crime activities. During the recent years, there has been an exponential growth in e-crime activities in KSA, the cause of which can be determined to be the lack of security awareness and lack of appropriate law enforcement models against such activities. Population boost and accessibility to technology in performing deadly and sophisticated network attacks are some of the other reasons behind making e-crime as a worldwide issue (Dwyer, 2010).
Spyware, viruses, and Trojans can be limited by the use of anti-malware packages in computer systems. Also, one should make sure that no suspicious and unsolicited files are clicked or accessed through emails or other electronic sources. Once infected, proper malware removal procedures should be adopted in removing the infection as quickly as possible.
To avoid being a victim of computer system attackers, it is important to be aware of the other party with which the information is being shared with. Before disclosing any organizational, personal or network information, the person’s authority to receive the information should be appropriately confirmed. No financial or personal information should be sent over the Internet before checking the website’s security. Anti-phishing features, e-mail and spam filters, and anti-virus programs and firewalls should be adequately installed on the computer and other network structures (McDowell, 2009).
Electronic criminals, commonly known as hackers and intruders, hack into the personal accounts of individuals to gain access to their credit card, bank account, and other classified personal and financial information, thereby inflicting damage to information and important data. For protection against these kinds of offenders, it is necessary to keep one updated with the changing trends in the world of cyber security. Newer and more sophisticated ways of trespassing into network and security systems are being developed every day, and it is, therefore, important to renew and synchronize the security systems with the emerging trends (Paget, 2003).
Passwords are meant to be tools to keep trespassers from accessing your personal and private data. However, in recent times, the password system has become insecure and it very easy for experts to trace and map even the most complicated passwords. It is very easy to figure passwords if they are left unchanged for a long period of time. Therefore, it is important to regularly change password which will provide additional security to important data. The hacker or potential intruder will now have to invest more effort in figuring out the password, once it keeps changing regularly. It will also be harder for them to map passwords if the password is a complex combination of multiple types of characters. Passwords that include characters from the date of birth, spouse name, and other routine information; are very easily traced and therefore should be avoided. For advanced protection, it is recommended that one should use password encryption software which encrypts the password text into cipher codes and combinations; decryption of which is relatively hard and time-consuming for a potential attacker. Information security allows only the authorized and rightful personnel the right to access, alter or share information; and by any means prevent any trespasser or intruder from reading or hearing such information. Businesses and organizational, as well as personal operations are highly dependent on information systems. As such, it is important for such systems to be reliable and secure for the processes and project management to perform transactions and processes in a safe environment (Tharalampos, 2008).
Wireless devices also pose security risks that are often overlooked by enterprises and organizations. Wireless security needs to be approached in a fashion similar to that of wired networks, servers, and computers. It is important for organizations to develop and successfully implement adequate security policies regarding wireless devices in their network infrastructure. The fundamental problem in front of creating wireless security networks is that the security measures directly affect the resources and highly strain the device processing power and performance.
Stenographic security tools allow insertion of hidden information into data sources, and later retrieving them back and modifying them. Such data handling tools can use any kind of data and use images to categorize data objects. The stenographic tools allow hiding of messages into BMP, GIF and JPG graphics which can later be scanned and decrypted automatically.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a method of generating and controlling electronic signature certificates regarding a wide variety of software and protocols, and are mainly used in registration and keeping a record of the customer.
Biometric security systems use physiological and other unique behavioral characteristics of a person to ensure the absolute identification and authorization of the person. When the biometric system is combined with a card reader, it provides an individual the absolute rights to the card credentials. Smart cards provide an opportunity to store the biometric data and other on-card functions, which are accessible to the individual through smart card readers (Katz et al, 2002).
During recent years, the forensic role has increased in the investigation of cyber-crime. Advancements have been made over time in computer forensic technology, which has helped in data protection from hackers and intruders. Continuous improvements in information technology management have provided hackers with immense opportunities to exploit the vulnerabilities of computers and information systems. Therefore, it is important for forensic technology and related experts to keep themselves at par with the potential frame of cyber-crime and keep themselves updated with the emerging trends (Akhter, 2008).
Experienced hackers and cyber criminals are generally more vigilant about leaving digital footprints on the scene of the crime and usually take infinite measures to conceal their identity starting from the computer that was used as the source of the crime. Computers used for hacking are generally bought with cash and are destroyed after perpetrating attempt in order to remove the basic evidence. Even the internet connection used is not their own, and is usually a wireless network owned by someone else, and that cannot be traced back to the identity of the attacker. Experienced hackers are usually careful in deleting the log files from the victim’s system, which makes it difficult for the investigators to trace down the control servers from where the perpetrating attempt was done. However, no crime is a perfect crime, and although hackers can impede the investigation process in many different ways, there are always ways to collect evidence and trace a hacker. Common measures of controlling damage and collecting evidence include forensic examination of the targeted computer, in case of attempts against websites taking down the web page can prevent further damage, and lastly, leaving the targeted machine as it is and moving the data to another machine while waiting for the possible intruder to return and leave some more evidence.
Malicious programming codes designed to penetrate through international computer networks is no longer a subject of fiction but is an existing technology used by criminals in stealing information, committing theft and inflicting damage to another computer or network system. However, it is possible to track such crimes using the computers utilized in the offense as evidence. In broader terms, electronic crime is defined as an activity which uses computers, networks or other electronic devices as tools, target, and source of the crime. Generally, an electronic crime consists of theft, embezzlement or fraud committed through gaining illegal access to an unauthorized network or system, or by illegal interception of information in a communication network. Such activities are usually performed through the distribution of malicious applications and software and through damaging and alteration of data in a computer or communication system. Commonly, cyber-crimes are committed with motives of personal gain such as financial information frauds and identity thefts. Other forms of electronic crimes include copyright violations, pornography (especially child pornography) and unlawful harassing of individuals over the internet (referred to as stalking).
In an effort to counter electronic crime practices, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has implemented some strategies and guidelines, based on the security models of some other countries and international agencies. These strategies mainly address the regulations against cyber-crime and focus on creating awareness and providing education in this field. The KSA anti-cybercrime policies also aim at enforcing adequate enforcements and providing technical solutions for such malicious activities. Enforcement agencies such as The Ministry of Interior (MOI) and CITC, have been set up to deal with Anti e-crime Act violations. Both the departments are mutually responsible for coordinating against criminal and objectionable activities, and their performance is extremely vital in dealing with e-crime. The level of coordination is still in its infancy and will be developed in the future with the help of a Cross-Agency Program Steering Committee. Recently, CITC was recognized as part of the international program in fighting e-crime, also that its cooperation was demanded in the enforcement of cyber laws internationally and in dealing with intrusion attempts from outside the country (CITC, 2005).
Social Conception about E-crime
Cybercrime and internet fraudulent activities are on a growing trend in Saudi Arabia during recent times, and there are newer varieties of Internet frauds emerging in society with the growing sophistication of technology. In most of the cases, these e-crimes are never reported and usually, these online deceptive scams go unnoticed. This is because there is a lack of awareness in the Saudi Arabia society regarding online criminal activities, and in general, it is perceived that cybercrime is not a punishable offense in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, there is a growing need of defense implementation and policies regarding control of cybercrime in the Saudi society. There had never been a concrete cyber law in the Saudi Arabia legislature. However, during early 2007, with pressure from internal political powers and entities, the Saudi Arabia government was forced to pass a new legislation which defined the different kinds of online criminal activities in their adequate sense. This law was approved by the Council of Ministers and was made into an act, which was later welcomed by most of the Saudi leaders and experts who deemed this as a revolutionary step towards protecting the Saudi Arabia society from the growing threat of internet fraud and other online criminal behaviors. Although this law is based on dealing with modern phenomenon, it is primarily formulated on the basis of Islamic principles and laws. Earlier, the late King Fahad Ibn Abdulaziz had declared that the Basic Governance System of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will be based on the Islamic religious law and that the administration in governance will be decreed by the authority of Holy Qur’an and the traditional sayings of Prophet Muhammad, called the Sunnah. It was stated in this Article Seven of the governing system that all administrative policies and principles will work towards enforcement of the Islamic law, which is the basic and fundamental code behind all objectives and rules of the kingdom.
It has been decided that all criminals of Internet fraud will be judged indiscretion with the authority of the chief executive as per the seriousness of the crime. It was also said that the ruler can amend the penalties and judicial system for cyber offenders with the interest of the public in mind. The ruler has also been authorized to enforce the Islamic criminal policies in the most appropriate way that deals with the criminal and determines the penalty for the crime. In fact, many philosophers and Islamic legal experts believe that the policies of any nation should be dynamic with the changing times and although in compliance with the Islamic teachings, should not be kept rigid and should respond in all adequacies in the best interest of the people.
When viewed from the perspective of Islamic laws, it is to be noted that an offense of Internet fraud does not classify the offender as a thief and does not make them liable to the hand amputation penalty deemed by Islam. This is because, Islam sees theft as an act unknown to the victim and done without any prior consent; while during an internet fraud, all activities leading to loss of information or property are supposedly done with the consent of the victim and are even in their knowledge. Also, there is no physical act of stealing and the only action is that of deception and trickery, which leaves the crime out of the boundaries of “theft” as defined by the Islamic law. Therefore, the Islamic law leaves all cybercrime and internet fraudulent activities to the jurisdiction of religious scholars and experts.
Prior to the formulation of the Anti-Cybercrime act, as mentioned before, all jurisdictions related to cyber crime offenders were left to the decisions of the religious scholar who judged the offense indiscretion with the Islamic laws. The Anti-Cybercrime act consists of sixteen articles and is the first set of laws in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia designed to deal with the growing threat of e-crime and online criminal activities. These articles clearly define the activities which constitute as spreading of cyber crimes and clearly outline the objectives and standards which the legislation aims at achieving. The act defines each crime and determines the appropriate penalty in response to each variety of crime, along with the cooperative enforcement from different agencies. This is done in order to deal with internet crimes and safeguard the national interests in the context of information security and implementing the secure use of computers and online networks. Furthermore, the introduction of this legislative act has provided the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to protect the public interest from the clutches of online malevolence directed from internal as well as international cyber-criminals, and provide a chance of developing the National Economy (Tharalampos, 2008).
It is, however, observed from the Anti-Cybercrime act, that while cyber crime is not clearly defined in all clear perspectives; it is definitely considered an offense punishable by law. Cybercrime has been vaguely defined as any unlawful activity undertaken with the help of computer or the internet or any other communicative technology. This definition has weaknesses and deficiencies which can possibly be exploited in the future for misinterpretation and loopholes. To review this set of discrepancies and misinterpretations, the Saudi Communication and Information Technology (CITC) has assessed and analyzed the existing legislations, from which it was deduced that the Anti-Cybercrime act does not necessarily and completely deal with the issue of spam and the internet fraudulent activities. There have been major flaws in the newly formulated act in context to the appropriate and exclusive definition of spam messages and commercial advertisements, which have proven to be the major annoyance and threat to most internet users, communities, applications and infrastructure (Dwyer, 2010).
The issue of spam that leads to spreading of the virus, phishing attacks and other online criminal and fraudulent activities; has not only affected the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia but many other regions and countries as well. A series of international laws have addressed the issues posed by the malicious intent of cybercrime and have laid out guidelines and measures to counter the problems caused by international cyber offenders. For instance, the UK Fraud Act 2006 against the phishing attacks tries to define the offense of fraud and aims at prosecuting any offender trying to deceive through fraud and spam emails. Another instance in the United States, Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003, decrees restrictions and penalties upon criminal offenders trying to obtain property through deception or trickery, or passing and circulating unsolicited commercial advertisement messages through the medium of internet. This act was further amended to bar the relay or transmission of such malevolent electronic mails and directed fines and imprisonment for offenders related to the origin of such messages. Similarly, the Prevention of Electronic Crimes Ordinance of 2007 declares a fine of not more than fifty thousand rupees for the first time offender who distributes harmful data, messages or any other communicative transmission with the intention of misleading, deception or thievery. If the offense is committed multiple times, the fine will be accompanied with a three-month imprisonment, either individual or a combination of both.
Other Laws Regulating Internet Fraud in the Kingdom
Besides the Anti-Cybercrime Act, there are two other legislations that deal with the issues related to the context of internet fraud. These legislations, namely the Anti-Commercial Fraud Law and the Electronic Transactions Act, provide additional frameworks for regulating the extent of cybercrime in the Saudi society.
The Anti-Commercial Fraud Law:
According to this law, every merchant is required to conduct their operations in lawful terms and without any activity or intentional deed of deception, cheating or trickery with the motive of misleading the consumer. The Ministry of Commerce is responsible for this law and takes into account all commercial frauds related to online advertising and portraying of commercial messages in order to sell products or services in a deceitful and misleading way. The act provides a regulatory framework and a reference model to the ministry in categorizing the unsolicited commercial messages as legitimate or part of a cyber-scam, thereby creating awareness and protecting the citizens of the kingdom.
The Electronic Transactions Act
The Electronic Transactions Act aims at providing a safe and secure medium for performing electronic transactions for the purposes of medicine, trading, e-government, billing, education, and e-payments. The objective is to safeguard the process of and provide regulatory standards facilitating secure and validated usage of electronic transaction medium without any barriers of usage or signatures and preventing any misuse of the electronic medium directed at acquiring unlawful gains at the expense of others property or money related fraud.
Business communications based on computers undermine social trust to begin with, as there is no physical communication during transactions or sharing of information. As such it is very difficult to judge deceitful ways over the internet, which is normally possible through physical observations of gestures, body language, facial expressions etc. As a general consensus, people feel insecure while sharing personal or professional information online, as it is already widely known that the implications of such acts can prove hazardous for them in real life. Consider the case of social networking platforms, where people openly share private and professional information regarding their workplace, family members, and financial information and so on. For a potential cyber-attacker, it is very easy to fake an identity that is coherent with the interests of the targeted individual. Once socialized with on the social networking platform, the potential attacker gains the element of mutual trust which can later be exploited for extracting personal and classified professional information. As a result of this exploitation of the element of trust on the cyberspace, people are now reluctant to share and socialize with strangers, and it is getting difficult for them to trust even the legitimate and genuine service facilities over the internet. Once lost, it is very difficult to restore the element of social trust in the world of cybercrime. Unless cybercrime is properly dealt with, not only within internal networks but also across international boundaries; social trust will always be undermined in the world of cyberspace (Dutton and Shepherd, 2003).
Consequences and results of cybercrime in KSA
Over the last five years, there has been a rapid increase in the number of attacks, as well an increase in the extent of damage these attacks deal with the targeted infrastructure. Owing to the emerging advancements and trends in the field of internet technology, potential attackers now use much more deadly ways to target their victims with the motive of either distributing malware or illegally acquiring financial gains. This is evident from the long list of intrusion attacks targeted at banks and other related financial bodies over the last few years. Moreover, this trend is expected to rise in the future, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia now faces the immediate need of response towards the cyber crimes. They need to update and synchronize themselves with the developing technology and earn the capability of countering such attacks as soon as they are triggered (Dwyer, 2010).
Along with the money in physical bank accounts, these days’ people keep virtual money in virtual bank accounts, which undergo electronic transactions through a number of financial institutions and entities. As the number of internet transactions continues to increase, there is a possibility that cybercrime will soon merge with the boundaries of conventional crime and will pose a threat to the citizens as well as the economy of Saudi Arabia. The evidence of this can be extracted from the fact that drug trafficking, prostitution, gambling, and other conventional illegal activities; all take place over the internet and the criminal groups who want to sustain their market and power are rapidly plunging themselves into committing their acts of crimes over the internet. Eventually, all criminal groups will have their respective online branches and internet will be the major source of revenue for them. Gang territories will now be managed through internet profiles and new gang wars are probably on the corner. It is expected that the money and other financial assets gained through cybercrime will be invested into the national economy of Saudi Arabia, meaning that cybercrime is not only converging with a conventional crime but is also integrating itself with white collar crime. Cybercriminals, who had initially thought of cleaning their black money and creating their own money-laundering structure, will now be able to associate themselves with white collar crime. The Internet’s global reach, the speed of transactions, the difficulties in identifying clients, and the complexity of legal systems based on territoriality and sovereignty will make the criminal’s job easier. These changes will go hand in hand with an escalation of violence against those who get in the way of cybercrime. There is an expected growth in offshore centers housing online banking services and virtual casinos that are nearly illegal or outright criminal according to the legislative acts of Saudi Arabia. Despite efforts by Saudi law enforcement, cybercriminals will become more sophisticated in exploiting vulnerabilities in international standards. New opportunities will allow money launderers and those involved in international online financial crime to prosper. Finally, cybercrime, rogue states, and independent transnational entities will come together. Rumors of cyber-attacks led or encouraged by nationalist, corrupt, or authoritarian regimes are getting more and more precise. Although cyber war is no longer just science fiction, it is likely that unstable regimes, anti- Western states, and terrorists or radicals (eco-terrorists) will turn to digital crime. Until now, such states have always denied their involvement in this type of attack. It may not be long before we see undeniable proof of their participation. Since it is impossible to cordon off these chaotic places to keep them from implementing such actions, some democratic states may be tempted to justify their actions while using these same methods. The consequences of such actions, under the guise of protecting our democracies, could prove catastrophic (Dwyer, 2010).
Proposals and Solutions
It is to be noted that the Anti-Cybercrime Act of Saudi Arabia mainly focuses on prosecuting offenders, personnel and organizational bodies involved in malevolent online activities operating within Saudi Arabia. The act as such does not deal with any cybercrime happening outside Saudi Arabia or directed from outside towards Saudi Arabia. Cybercrime scholars and experts from around the world are of the opinion that harmonization among anti-cybercrime laws of different countries is essentially important in combatting internet frauds and electronic crimes. Harmonization between different law enforcement bodies will provide a specified framework designed against all kinds of online criminal activities and will provide appropriate and adequate mitigation measures against them. Due to the growing trends in the activities of computer related crimes, it has now become a necessity for different countries to harmonize in the designing and revision or laws dealing with unlawful acquiring of information, electronic spying, intrusion in data privacy, trespassing private or classified networks, transmitting or distributing misleading information, and gaining profits illegally through any means of communication system. There should be increased coordination among different law enforcement agencies of individual countries while investigating an offense or while prosecuting the offenders under multiple but a commonly coordinated jurisdiction. This issue of harmonization among global and local law enforcement agencies was absent from the Saudi Anti-Cybercrime Act. Various international and domestic policies concerning procedures regarding cybercrimes are included by the Committee in the Saudi Criminal Procedural Code and the Convention on cybercrime. The review of this legislative code has no guidelines regarding the above mentioned legal regulatory framework.
Considering the scope and implications of the Saudi Anti-Cybercrime Act, it is to be noted that although the act enforces regulations against Internet fraud and other illegal cyber activities in Saudi Arabia, it does not address the issue of cybercrime in all contexts and details. The act fails to address any coherency in the act of cybercrime and limits itself to jurisdiction and enforcement procedures regarding only the personnel and entities related to the offense. The fact that the law does not take into account the nature, origin or seriousness of the crime; goes to show that there are many significant flaws and deficiencies in the legal system, which unless taken care of will be exploited regularly and will fall short of dealing with the fraudulent activities and crime on the internet within Saudi Arabia.
The legal supervisions and the corresponding legislative acts should define and clearly specify the type and variety of fraud or crime. For example, the Saudi Electronic Transactions Act specifies impersonation of another individual’s identity, forgery or signatures or other electronic certificates, and unauthorized trespassing into the networking system with the motive of misusing such certificates and information; as acts of Internet fraud and makes the offender liable to a penalty of maximum SR five million or five years in imprisonment or both. Against the violation of the crime, the article also views the hardware, software or any other infrastructure as source of crime and violation of the law, to be liable for confiscation by the authority and immediately subjected to cancellation or suspension for further use, as in the case of malicious websites. These guidelines and regulations clearly specify most of the phishing and related offences, which most likely involve illegitimate impersonation of another person’s identity in one form or the other.
In my own perspective the following solution can be established to prevent e-crime and spread the awareness throughout the social, individual, and government level.
- Set up a study center for information technology and data to support all aspects of electronic mean. The center manages all electronic transaction, online, e-crime, computer forensic and involved technology in Saudi Arabia. The center must have its own studies and research to combat e-crime. Also, control the campaign of awareness and enact the rules and regulations of security of all different aspect of electronic information, data and communications.
- Bring scientist and experts from other country which are experience of e-crime and obtain their experience to develop and improve the technologies infrastructures as well as current strategies, tactics and methods used to protect the social and individual from e-crimes and its affect to the country.
- Let organizations and companies in Saudi to be involved in managing and holding conferences, workshops, training, seminars and advertisements about e-crime to all people. The companies can contribute effectively to the process of spreading awareness of e-crime.
- Establish a research study center to improve and develop the infrastructure of information technology and integrate rules, regulation of the government’s law with Islamic Sharia’s in the field of technology. The center could improve the international standard of technology and security with local rules to come up with an improved standards and regulations which can eventually create a new rule that fit to the society as well as the rules followed in Saudi Arabia.
- For the convicted cyber offenders, the local and international agencies should make sure that tough punishments are decreed which will instill fear of the crime and avoid the repetition of the act to some extent.
- The government law enforcement bodies should work towards running awareness programs regarding cybercrime, and educate people towards the possible online crime routes and how to avoid them.
- Internet service providers should be carefully monitored and checked for any suspicious online activity going through their servers. As a matter of fact, cooperation of the net providers in supplying with information as necessary should be made mandatory.
- The government should learn from other cases of e-crime that have occurred in other countries and were successfully rectified. This will enable them to not only learn the mitigation measures and policies against particular crime route, but it will also ensure that the law enforcement agencies keep updated with the latest trends and advancements in the cybercrime technology.
- The youth generation of today is the one reaping most out of the technological advancements of the times. Therefore, they out of all are the most vulnerable for exposure to online crimes. The law enforcement agencies should run programs that will educate the youth about the social and economic dangers cybercrime poses to a nation and its society. Probably, this will motivate some of the youngsters to join the government programs that educate and train people for fighting cybercrime and tracking the offenders.
- A sophisticated satellite system should be established, similar to the existing GPS system, which makes tracking and tracing of cybercriminals a little easier. Internet police stations should be launched as websites and through social media platforms that allows people to report crimes in a more convenient way. Also, the internet police will be expected to keep vigilante and track internet activity round the clock.
Observing the laws and anti-cybercrime acts from around the world, it can be seen that the Anti-Cybercrime act of Saudi Arabia fails to explicitly define certain categories of cybercrimes and fails to impose specified penalties or fine against the offenders circulating or transmitting harmful content over the internet. The Saudi Anti-Cybercrime act fails to address the defined and accurately structured framework for legitimate commercial messages and therefore fails in specifying anything that falls out of its scope. Another issue concerning the decree of penalties towards offenders of internet related fraudulent activities is that there is no specified limit of fine and the judgment is left to the discretion of the judge without clearly defining and taking into account the seriousness of the crime. It has been mentioned in the legislative article that offenders of cybercrime will be issued a three years maximum imprisonment with a fine of SR 2 million. There is no lower limit specified and is solely left to the personnel judging the offense, which in some cases leads to an issue of fine, imprisonment or both not really in accordance with the seriousness of the crime. It has also been mentioned in the article of Anti-Cybercrime act that any property or software acquired through illegal internet activity will be confiscated by the government, and all such projects and sites which count as sources of the crime will be permanently or temporarily closed if it is found that the unlawful act was committed with the knowledge of the owner, as deemed appropriate by the authority overseeing the jurisdiction.
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Dutton, W. H. and Shepherd, A. 2003. Trust in the Internet: The Social Dynamics of an Experience Technology. Oxford Internet Institute, Research Report No. 3. [online] Available at: http://live.online.se/wip/publishedarchive/RR3.pdf [Accessed 3 May 2011]
Paget, F. 2003. Cybercrime and Hacktivism. McAfee Labs. [online] Available at: http://www.yesser.gov.sa/ar/mediacenter/DocLib1/ksa_to_information_society.pdf [Accessed 3 May 2011]
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