This is third dissertation on Success factors of knowledge management in banking industry in saudi Arabia. It is part of dissertation Help. This part of Dissertation Success factors knowledge management methodology describes data collection method
Data Collection Method
The data regarding the knowledge sharing process in organisations was collected in order to analyze the factors which had an impact on the process, either positively or negatively. The data collected through primary and secondary methods highlighted the current and past knowledge sharing process in organisations and determinedwhich factor had a role in deciding the success of the process.
The data was collected through primary as well as secondary data collection. The secondary data collection pertaining to the various organisations aided the understanding of the knowledge sharing process and factors which motivated their employees for sharing the knowledge (Shuttleworth & Martyn, 2008). Also, the importance of this knowledge sharing process was highlighted through collection of primary data. Secondary data was collected through various news and articles pertaining to knowledge management processes in Saudi Arabian banks. Information about companies was also accessed through various journals, magazines and websites of the companies.
Primary data collection process was achieved in order to collect fresh data from the employee of the organisation. This data was specifically collected for this current study and distinguished various factors impacting the knowledge sharing process in organisations (Garraghan & Gilbert, 1996). Primary data collection was done by conducting telephonic interviews with the respondents of banks in Saudi Arabia.
Utility of the Topic
This research will add high value to the researchers who are working in the knowledge management field, especially in the banking industry in Saudi Arabia. This topic is of immense interest since the knowledge sharing process is the key to every business center management as it has ability to provide a sustainable competitive advantage to companies which cannot be easily imitated by competitors (Trochim, 2006). Furthermore, competition is increasing which has led to a greater need of having a competitive advantage in order to differentiate one company from another. As a result, being aware of factors which impact the knowledge sharing process can help in improving these factors as well as the knowledge sharing process.
Role of Literature Review in Research Methodology
The Literature review presents significant important aspects which aid the process of data collection requirements for this study. The literature review also assists in identifying typical knowledge sharing processes followed in companies (Creswell, 1998). In addition, it highlights the benefits of knowledge sharing processes to companies as well as to employees of the company. The barriers which come across companies in sharing of knowledge have also been discussed in the literature review process.
The literature review dramatically helped in order to highlight factors which need to be identified in research in order to discuss their impact on knowledge sharing process in organisation.
Need of Quantitative or Qualitative Data
This study aimed at discovering the factors affecting the knowledge sharing process. To be aware of the factors affecting the knowledge sharing process, qualitative data needed to be collected (Creswell, 2003). Also, in order to find out the intent of each factor on employee knowledge sharing behaviour, quantitative data was collected which would be of assistance in the comparison of the various factors affecting the knowledge sharing process.
Discussion of alternative methods of data collection
Data collection method
Data collection process for the research was such that it removed the biasness in data on account of secondary research and didnot only depend upon the primary sources which may also be another source of biasness in data. Data collection involved collection of secondary data through the literature and articles regarding the knowledge sharing in banking industries in Saudi Arabia (Patton, 2002). For collecting the primary data, telephonic interview were conducted with the knowledge management officers in the banking industry in Saudi Arabia.
See the previous part, Literature Review on Knowledge Management in Banking Industry>>>>
Reason for Choosing the Method
The survey method provided an easy, simple way to present the findings of the research for employee knowledge sharing behaviour patterns in the banking business in Saudi Arabia. This method was chosen as it helps researchers to study employee knowledge sharing behaviour of individual employees and it allows researchers to explore various amounts of information from the respondent in order to make the decision on the given problem.
Discussion of the Question Content and Data Required
The survey questions designed for collecting the data for the study contained questions about the factors affecting the knowledge sharing behaviour of employees. The questions were unstructured and focused on the motivational factors which motivated employees in the banking industry for sharing their knowledge in banks in Saudi Arabia. The data was collected through conducting surveys within various banks in Saudi Arabia (Garraghan & Gilbert, 1996).
Discussion of the Format of the Questionnaire(s)
Questions were presented in a predefined order of survey which would be conducted in order to find out the knowledge management practices in banks in Saudi Arabia. Initially, relaxing questions were asked to respondents which did not require any kind of information to be given by respondent. (Patton, 2002). After this, lead questions were asked which required extensive information from the respondent. Then, exploratory questions were asked from respondents which involved knowledge and experience of the knowledge management officers.
Discussion of the Phrasing of the Questions
The questions asked during the survey process conducted with the respondents took care of the phrasing of the questionnaire. Questions were open ended to give a chance to respondents to provide more valuable information to the researcher.
Discussion of Data Collection Method
Surveys were conducted with a small sample size in order to get in-depth knowledge from the customers. Surveys were conducted with respondents in which respondents were asked about their knowledge sharing behaviour and factors which motivated them to share their wealth of knowledge with other members of the organisation (Herrman, 2009). Specific incidents were mentioned from the respondents and the responses from the respondents were recorded as unorganised information system which was further analyzed with the help of the content analysis method. The sample for conducting the surveys was selected from the employees who had certain experience in knowledge sharing process in their organisation.
Discussion of Sample
Market research involves collecting the primary data from respondents in order to collect the information about the research topic. However, in order to collect information from every individual, it is not viable keeping in mind the time and money constraints (Birkinshaw, 2001). Therefore, to represent the whole population for which collectionof the data is aimed at, a representation of the whole population through a number of particular respondents called samples has been given.
Samples represent that whole group of population and the data collected through these small samples is assumed to be applicable for the whole population to which this sample aims at representing. So, samples are the small groups which are selected based on a particular criterion in order to represent the whole relevant population. This particular theory is referred to as the sampling theory (Batra, 2010). Sampling is very important to research design since through sampling, research can be done for a small number of respondents and results can be applied for the whole population. This leads to the research design becoming convenient and achievable due to the sampling process since without this, it is not viable to survey every respondent.
There are various sampling methods which can be termed as follows:
- Random sampling: this is a sampling method in which an equal probability is given to every member of the population in order to get selected. This method has an advantage as it does not include any kind of biasness in the data. However, the disadvantage of this method is that it is not viable to access each and every member of the population under study (Argyris & Schon, 2002).
- Systematic sampling: this is a modified random sampling method in which the population is divided into a small number of groups and from each group of sample and one particular sample unit is chosen. This method is helpful in removing biasness from the data while it does not guarantee reaching every sample selected.
- Stratified sampling: In this sampling method the whole population is divided between small strata and among these strata some samples are chosen in order to avoid the biasness in the data. Nevertheless, it contains drawbacks as it does not provide equal opportunities to all members of the population.
- Quota sampling: In quota sampling the whole population is assigned some quotas and each quota is selected as the sample size for the research.
- Convenience sampling: Convenience sampling provides the levy to select the samples according to the convenience of the researcher but the main disadvantage of the method is that it is not able to avoid biasness into the data.
For conducting the surveys, the convenience sampling method has been used since the method allows access of respondents at ease and less time and cost is incurred in the process of data collection. On the other hand, the main disadvantage with the method of convenience sampling is that it allows biased data (Guba & Lincoln, 1999).
The convenience method has been chosen due to the ability of the method to reduce the cost and time for the researcher. Also, since the researcher has full access to the respondents, in depth information can be achieved from the respondents which can gain other sampling methods since sometimes respondents do not show interest into the research (Reagans et al, 2003).
The size of sample for conducting the surveys has been determined with keeping in mind the time and cost issues of the research since tightness of time does not allow researching many respondents.
The results will summarise the key findings from the primary research that reconfirms the trends from secondary research and conflicting findings (if there are any). The primary research will also be tied back to secondary research to see if it is reliable and reflects the findings from past literature. Based on primary and secondary data, the paper will be concluded by the conclusions and recommendations section (Allee, 2007). The last section including conclusions and recommendations will summarise all the research findings for managerial implications and reiterate the facts revealed by the research. Recommendations are also includedregarding various ways to motivate employees in order to share their wealth of knowledge with other members of organisation in order to benefit the organisation and the other employees as well.
Review of the Methodology Used for theResearch
Secondary data collection might have posed some challenges as a large amount of data regarding factors affecting the knowledge sharing process in the banking industry is not available in literature. Extensive research of literature was also required to dig out this information if it existed. To be able to draw out trends, extensive surveying of the industry and the consumers was required (Garvin, 2003). In such a case, research required information collected from respondents who were managers and employees in banking companies in Saudi Arabia and dealing with the knowledge sharing process in organisations.
Another limitation about the primary data was indeed the small sample size which was not able to represent the entire population and so may have lead to an incorrect conclusion regarding the factor affecting knowledge sharing process.
Steps to Solve the Problem
To solve the problem presented in the study the following steps were followed in order to solve the problem:
- Deciding the research objective
- Developing the hypothesis based on the objective of the research
- Clarifying research questions
- Developing methodology to carry out the research
- Sampling issues
- Designing instrument for data collection
- Data collection
- Data analysis
Ethics is indeed an important issue to consider when conducting a research study. Researchers are required to conform to regulations regarding the rights of subjects as well as keeping the requirements of the employee in mind. Such regulations include keeping utmost confidentiality, ensuring that recorded information is accurate, and referring to equal opportunities throughout any dealings with interviewees, and generally ensuring that fairness is met. Various other ethical considerations also involve the requirement of avoiding any such behaviour which may cause stress for respondents as well as ensuring that all questions asked to the interviewees do not cause any clash of interest. As a result, all respondents were given an explanation on the ambitions of this research, and the right to participate whilst being in accordance with the procedures and ethical regulations provided by Loughborough University.
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