This Data Analysis Finding UK Apprenticeship Dissertation discusses Relevance of apprenticeship, Increasing growth of apprentices and support of government and much more.
Chapter 5.0 Data analysis & findings
This Data Analysis Finding UK Apprenticeship Dissertation research is majorly based on secondary survey, where available books, journals, online publications, government publication reports, websites have been used. The gathered data was sorted as per the demand of research aim, and the relevant data and information were scrutinized for providing the report a logical structure, a comparative evaluation, and to brief the overall understanding in a sequenced manner.
5.1 Relevance of apprenticeship
The Data Analysis Finding UK Apprenticeship Dissertation research study aims to investigate the apprenticeship programmes in UK, in the age group of 16-18, and from 19 to 24, with a special focus on the beauty salon apprenticeship. The growth of apprenticeship was found evident from the reports, journals searched and found regarding apprenticeship programmes (House of Commons, 2012). According to the market statistics, the labor market is constantly faced with the crisis of dearth of skilled and efficient manpower. Following the economic turmoil and economic slowdown all over the world, the current market is all geared up for boosting economic growth towards entrepreneurships, small, and medium enterprises etc. In a way apprenticeship and traineeship are the key drivers of boosting national economic growth, playing a vital role in developing skills and enhancing efficiency. Government policies for youth development, promoting entrepreneurships are the key potential areas to quantify the quality of training and skill development programmes (Mathew, 2013). It can be explained as a relationship based on a professional contract, in which the trainee get to learn professional tricks from e seasoned professional, and also gets a little amount of remuneration for his work (Sumner, 2004). There have been many debates about the usefulness and application of apprenticeship. But undoubtedly the need for developing skill and efficiency for trades and self-financed business ventures was obvious and prime concern for government (Hodkinson & Bloomer, 2001). Technological, political, social and economical volatility have changed the course of industrial growth and expansion, and henceforth the need for professional and skilled workforce. The employers seek for proactive, skilled and trained people, and the industry demands more of flexibility and customization in company offerings (Toner, 2003). To be able to meet the market demand there is a call for specialized workforce in the very “bottom line”.
5.2 Increasing growth of apprentices
Apprenticeship, or in other words, traineeship, plays an important role in the economy of a nation. It prepares skilled/unskilled labours for the global trade markets and also helps them develop their skills. For the labours to have entry level skill set, apprenticeship or traineeship becomes the most efficient requirement. Using the skill set that they have acquired through the apprenticeship helps them to enter the industry easily (Levin & Waldman, 2004). It also helps both the skilled and unskilled labours get noticed in the industry. These people start off a few steps ahead of all others since they have skills to back themselves up. It also becomes easy for those labours to cope up to any kind of circumstances and task of any magnitude and therefore has better chance of prosperity upon their entrance in the industry (Miller, 2009). Apprenticeship also influence government policies regarding the kind of training that needs to be imparted before one joins the industries. The skill set that the industry requires have been changing rapidly from time to time. The skill set that entry level labours were expected to possess 15-20 years back are not the same as industry expects from them today (Fuller & Unwin, 1999). So to cope up with the rapid changing industry requirements, to match footsteps with the growth, the concept of apprenticeship has been changed and has been modified so as to make entrants more adaptive to the changes (Levin & Waldman, 2000). This change in the requirements of the industry can be accounted to the restructuring of the industries and also the constant change in the technology that is involved in every industry. Today the industries are more technology oriented than it used to be (Kapus & Cinski, 2001). Every industry has advanced technologies at their service to improve the quality of products and service rendered. Now to cope up with this change the entrants that join the industries must be trained adequately in those ever changing technologies. Moreover, the skilled labours who has tasted the industry even before formally joining it always has an upper hand in the industry (May, 2005). Those set of persons will always be more acceptable and welcome as seniors/trainers will not have to feed them with the needs and demands. Instead, they get a ready product that can be used for greater good and to better effects. Previously, no stress was laid on specialization. That means, labours/employees came into the industry with a general education at their back and then worked in different fields. So at that time they needed proper training to become specialists in respective fields. But in today’s age, due to increased competition, the demand to provide better and faster outputs has increased steeply. To match to that demand, industry now requires people with specialized skill set so that right upon their induction, they can contribute to the outputs and make changes to the supply. With specialized people around, the industry now can cater to the market needs and can supply in accordance to the demands, however high they may be. Again, much stress has been laid on the flexibility of the employees inside an organization. Under the changed circumstances, an employee is required to work in different platforms or on different projects/roles with equal ease (Vann & Hinton, 1994). Gone are the days when labours did the same thing and played the same role throughout their whole work life. So in order to become that much flexible, one need that kind of training that will make them tailor made for the industry (Smith, 2000). Apprenticeship provides an apprentice with exactly that kind of training that makes the person flexible enough to switch roles with élan (Kirbi, 2005). Due to the changed structure of the industry, the workers now need to be more responsive (Guile & young, 1998). There is even need to be more proactive. They must have the ability to assess situations fast even before it actually arrives and then make adjustments to cope up with the change. In the whole world, emphasis has been laid on commencing employment based training programs in which an apprentice trains inside an institute under professional guidance of its senior associates who knows the industry in and out and are the forerunners in their respective fields (Hodkinson Bloomer, 2001). In that period they are trained about the various aspects of the work that are done in the industry, about the products they deliver or about the service they render (Dirkx & Jha, 1994). They also learn about the tricks of the trade. In this period, they may receive a stipend or may not. But most important is the skill they take back. After their training, the program entitles them a placement in the same concern. Thus they enter the industry fully trained and ready to deliver. The term “apprentice” does not only apply to people entering the industry for the first time. The term may also be applied to experienced resources inside the workforce. The experienced may undertake on-the-job training, or off it, to make him ready for a separate position requiring a separate skill set.
5.3 Government support & expansion of apprenticeship programmed
From the study of government policies and practices regarding promotional steps towards apprenticeships, it has been found that to cope up with the economic depression the UK government has been constantly searching avenues for self employment, industrial growth, increase in entrepreneurships, and promoting the growth of small and medium scale industries. The government has incorporated policies for inclusion of apprenticeship programmes and has funded at around £ 640 million for the support of special education research, during the year 2009-10. The policy was especially focused towards young students aged between,16-25, and took into account more than 147,000 students under its purview (Fuller & Unwin, 2003). The financing and structuring of special education for the age group of students past 16, is critical and difficult to implement (House of commons, 2012). Funding becomes a major problem as the students themselves choose the seasoned professional, or industry in which they want to explore their skills and knowledge. With the increasing demand for apprentices and skilled workers, more and more young students are leaning towards a formal apprenticeship training programme making government job for funding and placing even more difficult. It is therefore important to utilize the financial resources carefully, giving priority to the issue. According to a government report, the need for special educational support for young people, gets delayed and funding reaches to them when they are about to reach 18 years of age. This therefore creates a significant gap between the need of student and the system infrastructure (Noel, 2006). By the time a student reaches an age of eighteen, he has completed the compulsory formal education, but due to lack of funding and infrastructural deficiency the student suffers from lack of professional hands on experience, and also the opportunities to explore skills, talents for a specialized profession. National audit report of UK government has revealed that a project named “green paper” has been strategized for restructuring the special education support system(house of commons report, 2012).
The approach towards the apprenticeship programmed in UK also faced the problems of incompletion of relevant academic qualification. The government strategy was to increase the labor supply and fill the gap of labors that have skills & expertise of intermediate level. During 1994, the Modern Apprenticeship programme was structured targeting the students in the age group of 16-18, and 19-24 (Mathew, 2012). But from its inception the programme lacked clarity about placement opportunities, and fought to reach demand of many industrial segments. Especially the industries which had no exposure towards developing apprentices faced the problem the most. The major issue with the programme of Modern Apprenticeship was to align the industry, education system and prospect for employment for the youth. The lack of interest in the employers or busy schedules of the professional experts did not show enough commitment towards apprenticeship development (Rothschild, 2001). The government focused on social reform plan, while it lacked the thrust towards building a skilled and efficient work force.
5.4 Growth of entrepreneurship in beauty business
In the post recession period in UK government started laying stress on entrepreneurship. This was more because the economic condition had become so rickety that the government could not provide the necessary support that was required to make the business and the industries thrive and prosper. Therefore it also reformed that more and more people should look to start self-funded business. As a result of which, several kind of businesses flourished, one of them being the business of beauty salon. The beauty salon is a perfect example of a small/medium scale self-funded business (Plowman, 1995). It was derived as a part of government’s policy to concentrate more on the medium and small scale industries, where he expenses are comparatively less. That would have helped the people garner some momentum to recover from their deficits suffered during the recession period.
One more policy that paved the way for the growth of beauty salon and the apprenticeship program revolving the same was that government reformed policy about women empowerment. After recession hit England badly, many men lost their jobs in the process. The women of the society had to take charge. Moreover, long gone were the days when women were only expected to look after their homes and kids. But for the women workforce to thrive there needed to be an industry tailor made for them. Thus the beauty salon industry became up and running. Beauty salon being primarily a woman centred concern, women started getting employments. In order to improve the quality of service being rendered at a beauty salon, these salons also started treading the same path, that of apprenticeship programs. Through those apprenticeship programs, the youth were trained about the business propositions of the trade. They were also given opportunities of on the job training; they supported the masters of the trade in their work (Mehta, 2006). In turn, they got chances of direct interaction with the clients. In the process, they could learn the need of the market; they could study the actual requirement of the client. They may not be paid handsomely as trainees, but they take back invaluable experience which would come into play once they enter the industry as employees.
The future scope for pay package for the apprenticeship program age group of under 19 and above 19 is different. For 16 to 19 year age group, the traineeship program should be incorporated in the study programs (House of Commons, 2012). In that program trainees can choose programs to enhance their skills required for employment. Training providers will be paid by government, the slab being the same as other training providers. For 19-24 year age group, the providers need to submit training data and will be paid accordingly from the Adult Training Budget (Mathew, 2013).