This Cyber crime assignment is about introduction, history and digital communication. It is also known as E-Crime
Cyber crimes is a term of today internet’s era but in the beginning of digital communication it is known as Electronic crime. Electronic crimes can be defined as the crime which involves the computer for either transfer of funds from illegal or unauthorised access or involve transfer theft of data which is of high importance. The Computer systems and IT are passing through a phase of high growth where in data is increasing from a high rate. And with increasing data, better data storage devices have already been developed which other science streams are not able to do yet (Adomi, 2005).
But along with this vast amount of data present with the people safely storage of data is a big problem since this data which is very essential for someone can bring wrong consequences if get theft. So the electronic crimes are related mainly with the crime through computer (Adomi, 2007a). Some of the characteristics of the computer crime are as follows:
- Socially damageable and pertain to illegal activity can be punished by law
- Specific Research methodology and devices to commit the crime
- Aim is to gain material (directly related with money) or immaterial benefits (related with the information)
- Security of data is at stake
1.2 History of cyber crimes
The History of cyber crimes is very old it started in the time even when there was no window developed by Microsoft, no information technology was there and even personal computer was not into existence. The First cyber crime was done by a student named Stewart Nelson who was a student of MIT University. The Level of cyber crime at that time though was not so high (Adomi, 2007b). Nelson develops a tone using the university computer which can access the long distance phone service.
Since then the auxiliaries as well as the complexity and risk of the cyber crimes have been increased multifold which is a major concern for the data E-banking and online funds for the people. In the year 1970 word hacking also came into mainstream with the development of the first personal computer names Altair 8800. The First personal computer was meant for the few techno savvy people as the person using the personal computer have not only to assemble the hardware but also have to write the piece of software in order to activate the working of the personal computer (Ruteyan, 2003).
This process of writing programmes on the computer also gave rise to various hackers as the people become efficient in writing the programme by them. So we can say it was the first personal computer Altair 8800 which gave rise to the trend of hacking in cyberspace. In the mean time in year 1975 the first multimedia computer came into existence which was named commodore 64, and was taken as a toy for teenagers and gave them a feel of present day hacking system.
The Network system development was also very slow and the first network system didn’t make use of the internet services. The Earlier networks made use of the mainframe computer along with the several dumb terminal with the help of which networking was being done (Akpore, 2006a). A dumb terminal doesn’t come with the processor power so it is called as the dumb terminal and it operates through the mainframe power.
Shortly IBM introduced his desktop pc the main problem with the desktop pc which was introduced was that it didn’t came with the networking capabilities. And if someone has to transfer a file it has to be done by transferring the file physically from one place to other by putting that in floppy or some other data storage device.
In year 1970 itself Xerox revolutionalizes the cyberspace by developing the Ethernet which was having the capability to connect the various pc through the local area network (Ayantokun, 2006). This local area network allowed this pc to access the information contained into the local mainframe server. Development of modem and phone line in year 1976 gave rise to the new way of communication for the computer throughout the world which was historical landmark for the cybercrime since now information which was not accessible previously can be accessed globally.
The Modem and phone line system give rise to the development of the Bulletin board system (BBS). A computer can make the phone call to the system operator using the BBS. The Modems at time though were very slow and not so reliable as well (Benson, 2001). The BBS service attracted many hackers for developing their expertise in hacking world since it become easy for hacker forum to share the software and other information with each other which mutually benefited them.
Pirated software and other material also became available at this time due to the facility of easy sharing of the data and software. The Pornography was also one more evil of this time as some of the people start posting the picture and start charging fee for viewing these pictures. Then the first internet service provider was developed which brought more scope for the cybercrime. Hence with the development of the information system integration the scope for the cyber crime also grown up very fast (Crilley, 2001).
1.3 Space communication and digital revolution
1.3.1 Space communication
Space communication can be defined as the communication between the outer space and the earth, this communication is generally done at the high-frequency electromagnetic radiations. The Provision of such a communication is an essential for any possible space mission. This whole system includes following parts:
- Command in instruction to space craft
Developments of the space communication have also gave rise to the various electronic crime such as following:
- Offensive content
- Drug trafficking
- Cyber terrorism
1.3.2 Digital revolution
Digital revolution is the name given to the change in technology from the analog to mechanical to the digital technology; this change in technology has been started from year 1980 and continues till now (IFLA, 2002). The Bigger change has been come into the digital communication and the computing technology during the 20th century which has its impact on the broader area of other technologies and electronics systems. The Digital revolution has given birth to the information age.
Some of the example of rise in digital technology can be shown from the following activities:
- 4 million cell phone subscriber worldwide in year 1990
- 8 million internet users in year 1990
- 4 billion users of cell phone in year 2010
- 8 billion of internet users by year 2010
- Adomi, E.E. (2005), “Internet development and connectivity in Nigeria”, Program, Vol. 39 No. 3, pp. 259-68.
- Adomi, E.E. (2007a), “African web portals”, in Tatnall, A. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Portal Technologies and Applications, Idea Group Inc., Hershley, PA.
- Adomi, E.E. (2007b), “Overnight internet browsing among cybercafe users in Abraka, Nigeria”,Journal of Community Informatics, Vol. 3 No. 2.
- Adomi, E.E., Okiy, R.B. and Ruteyan, J.O. (2003), “A survey of cybercafes in Delta State, Nigeria”, The Electronic Library, Vol. 21 No. 5, pp. 487-95.
- Aragba-Akpore, S. (2006a), “Regulation gap in IT auditing may hamper cyber crime control”, The Guardian (Nigeria), Vol. 45, pp. 31-3.
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