This is a solution of Concept of E-crime Assignment which provides you assignment in which you will came to know about concept of e-crime assignment and what actions need to solve. The area of research is cyber-crime and the study makes use of social learning theory to analyze criminal computer behavior.
The work is an explorative study as there is no previous data to refer to. The objective is to gain insights and familiarize the concept for future research. The primary hypotheses make use of psychological behaviors such as differential association, differential reinforcement and moral disengagement; and link them to individuals who had engaged in illegal computer activities. The focus is, primarily, on differentiating computer criminals from general criminals, by creating a demographic variable unique to them. The variables are then used to identify the factors influencing involvement and continuation of the computer related crime. The research makes use of an internet based approach to involve participants and for actual participation. This is to ensure that the study is not restricted to certain regions and can be openly reachable worldwide.
Motivation for this work
Information technology has made the worldwide sharing of ideas and information easier and realistic. This, however, has also opened the doors to fraudulent and criminal activities. This has led to incidents of terrorism, espionage and personal vengeance. Computer criminals have, lately, been the focus of many law enforcement groups and governments have established special forces to deal not only with the individuals, but also with the political disparities arising from the fallout. There have been no concrete research so far on internet security, and the existing policies only revolve around various trends and methods passed down through anecdotes provided by computer criminals. The need of formal research to substantiate and formulate computer security policies and to establish an effective legislation against e-crime is the main purpose of this work. It also helps in understanding traditional criminal behaviors.
The results of the study show that 60% of the participants had been a part of or had been engaged in Cyber crime activities. It shows that people have a different sense of morality when it comes to computer crime, and they do not see any basis of ethics towards privacy in the ‘cyber’ world. This could be the main reason behind behaviors of cyber thefts and fraudulent activities. The study shows that severity of the crime is highly influenced by ‘moral disengagement’. People find it difficult to justify severe crimes, but take less effort to rationalize petty criminal indulgences. Youths are more prone to committing computer crimes than old adults, because internet is a new generation technology alien to older people. Differential association and differential reinforcement are huge factors in separating computer criminals from those with no criminal activity. Association with people of computer related criminal background, teachers or supervisors who have engaged in unethical cyber acts and exposure to such media have a huge impact in defining the trends behind individuals prone to committing cyber-crime. There are many types of cyber crime. Criminal behavior can be predicted more accurately by using a combination of the three variables- moral disengagement, differential association and differential reinforcement; rather than using them separately.
Author’s evaluation of the solution
Due to lack of considerable research in the area of computer crime, there has been no significant development in the field of study. This research provides an explorative idea for conceptual development in the future. The instruments used require future work to increase their reliability, relevance and actual structure of the scales. The findings and inferences are important and add to the knowledge base in the field of study. The analysis of the result could have been comparatively broader if non-criminal public had also been included. Also, the findings are not based on any individual differences between the natures of the crime. The results, however, help comparing computer criminals to general criminals and future work needs to establish whether computer crimes are unique or part of the large criminal continuum.
Is the solution satisfactory?
The solution identifies variables and establishes the dependency of computer crimes with these variables. The effect of these variables; both individually and as a combination, is measured. Due to exploratory nature of the research, the hypothesis required significant variables in order to develop a significant model. Among the variables tested, the solution shows that differential reinforcement occurring with cyber-crime highly influences the continuation of the offense. The role of differential association and moral disengagement as variables are crucial to the prediction of criminal computer activities. However, the role of differential reinforcement need not be significant. This may be due to the difference between perceptions of negative reinforcements among students and non-students.
Contributions of the paper
The study provides an insight into different cyber crime activities and explores the differences not only between computer criminals and public, but also between computer criminals and general criminals. It will now be easier for law enforcement bodies to develop profiles of offenders based on different categories. This in turn will allow them to identify unique patterns and trends related with the crime. As the society is leaning more towards technology with the coming age, it is of importance to the society that computer crimes are identified and computer criminals be understood better.
What is not clear in the paper?
Owing to the exploratory nature of the research methodology, the lack of experimental sampling makes the conclusions and findings somewhat unclear. Also, the sampling doesn’t include young offenders, who presumably should constitute a significant portion of cyber offenders due to increased differential association. There is no data on convicted criminals and moral disengagement as a variable lacks normality and violates other test assumptions. It is unclear whether the focus was on conviction or on individuals engaged in criminal computer activities. Because in some regions, people who self-report are exempted from conviction and serve punishment within the community, the statistical power of the study was reduced. Therefore, small or medium variations might not have been detected. Also, the study doesn’t take into account and fails to link socio-economic standing and ethnicity of computer criminals to the nature of crime. Furthermore, the variables tested were not completely reliable on the statistical scale as the validity was only designed through various inputs from other researchers.
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