This is a solution of Civil Construction Survey Assignment which discuss the faces of two common surveyor’s staff and different face patterns.
Reading a surveyor’s staff
The faces of two common surveyor’s staff are shown below. One has a graduated face and the other an “E” pattern face.
Alongside each are five lines. Write alongside each line the corresponding staff reading to the accuracy stated below the relevant staff.
For graduated face
Readings starting from bottom to top
For “E” pattern face
Readings starting from bottom to top
- Write the RL of each grid intersection on the grid above using the given RL’s provided in the table below.
- Correctly draw the corresponding contour lines on the grid at 200mm intervals (this will create a contour plan)
- Determine volume of cut/fill from your contour plan, determine the quantity of excavation if it is intended to excavate to an RL of 104.00.
The grid squares are 5 m by 5 m. Show all you’re workings on a separate piece of paper. Marks will be lost if working is not shown.
Question 3: (THIS ANSWER MAY NOT BE ACCURATE FOR SET OUT METHOD EXPLANATION BECAUSE I NEED THE CODES)
Building set out method
Using Fig 1 below, detail how you would actually set out the building shown.
There are two options:
- Employ a land surveyor.
- Set it out yourself using profiles etc.
You need to explain what the procedure would be for each option and explain what you believe to be the advantages and disadvantages of each option. [See this Civil Engineering Assignment]
The first option is to employ a land surveyor
By appointing a land surveyor, the amount of work is divided among the person so that the work can be finished on time.
- The work can be finished on time
- Work can be divided among the people, so that work load and stress is reduced
- If the employed surveyor is highly qualified, good quality of work can be obtained
- The cost of construction is increased.
- The dependency among the work is increased.
- The amount of supervision work increases.
The second option is that set it out yourself
- The cost of construction is reduced
- The dependency among the work is decreased
- The stress is increased on us.
- The quality of work is reduced.
- Due to improper calculation, the amount of work as well as cost is increased.
Question-4: 2 Peg Test
Outline how you would perform a 2 peg test on an automatic Dumpy Level. Use written words and diagrams to explain your answer. [Check this Civil Partnership Assignment]
The main reason for performing a 2 peg test is to identify the calibration or accuracy of an automatic level.
Steps for a 2 Peg test:
- Firstly determine an accurate horizontal base line such that the station or the automatic level point is at a known offset distance
- Now from the base at known distance from the base line i.e. may be 20m or 30m from the station point on both side, mark the points on base line
- Now from the marked points on the base line, take offset distance which is equal to the offset distance of station point from base line, the points so obtained are peg points which can be noted as point A and B.
- Now keep levelling staff on peg at point A and take the middle stadia or central stadia hair reading (reading 1)
- Also simultaneously put the levelling staff on peg at point B and take the central hair reading (reading 2)
Note down the reading in observation table as follows:
|Position||Peg A||Peg B|
|Position 1||Reading 1||Reading 2|
|Position 2||Reading 3||Reading 4|
- Now for the second position reading move the station point towards any of the end, that is either towards A or towards B which changing the offset distance from base line
- Now keep the staff at peg A and obtain the central hair reading (Reading 3)
- Also keep the staff at peg B and obtain the central hair reading (Reading 4)
- Now obtain the difference of reading 1 and reading 3 as observation 1
- Identically obtain the difference of reading 2 and reading 4 as observation 2
- If the observation 1 and observation 2 are same, then it can be said that the instrument is perfectly calibrated and the work done is highly accurate.
- If the difference of reading is more than 20mm or 30mm, then the instrument requires calibration.
- Also test should be conducted second time, if proper differences were not obtained.
Questions 5: Levelling
Name and describe two levelling instruments (not a spirit or water level) that you have used on-site and detail the advantages and disadvantages of each instrument. Detail how you set up each instrument to ensure accuracy of your levelling task. [Also read Civil Waste Regulation Assignment]
The levelling instruments used on site are:
- Dumpy level
- Total station
Dumpy Level: This is the basic instrument used for taking level readings. It consists of fixed telescope about horizontal axis i.e. the telescope cannot move in vertical plane. It is normally used to take level reading for a levelled ground surface. It consists of water bubble for its levelling about horizontal axis.
- It does not requires special skills.
- The temporary adjustments are easy and quick.
- The instrument is cheap.
- It cannot be used on sloping ground .
- The angle of the traverse cannot be measured using it.
Theodolite: It is a combination of dumpy level and compass. It is an improved dumpy level in which the telescope rotates about horizontal axis in vertical plane. Generally, used to measure horizontal distance of sloping ground using geometrical functions. It is fitted with a vertical circle for the measurement of vertical angle which is useful in computational works. It is important to have knowledge about Civil Law Management.
- It is used to measure horizontal distance on sloping ground.
- It is used to determine heights of inaccessible point.
- It can be used for prolonging of a line.
- The accuracy is more.
- Relative height and the bearing can be found out using same equipment.
- The cost is more .
- It requires special skill.
- Computation is complex.
- The speed of work is less.
List the WHS concerns when setting out a building site.
- What components are likely to be included in site plans and specifications?
Components may include site location, scale of plan, north symbol, name of project, legend, associated plan references, plant lists, details of special features, existing vegetation and structures, and services above and below ground.
- What other available plans may be referred to?
Other plans may include surveyors plans which may provide information on utility services, site levels, boundary lines, easements and rights of way, or engineers and architect plans that may show other proposed works.
- What equipment is likely to be used when setting out a site for construction works?
Equipment may include tapes, a compass, pegs, string lines, line marking equipment, a lump or mash hammer, ranging rods, arrows, plumb bobs, levelling equipment, and personal safety equipment such as a coloured vest, safety boots, sun hat and sun screen lotion.
- What could be considered an environmental impact in relation to proposed construction works?
Any construction works may impact on the environment in either a positive or negative manner. If it is drainage and irrigation, this may reduce excess water, nutrient and chemical flow into natural waterways. If the works involve excavation, then this may damage the soil structure and stability of the site.
- What OHS hazards may apply to setting out a site for construction works?
Hazards may include solar radiation, uneven surfaces, strings, tapes and measures that may be tripped over, sharp equipment and surrounding obstacles.
- How would existing site features be located from a site plan?
The location of features may include the use of baselines, offset measurements, angles and grids. What scale measurements are likely to be Metric scales may include: 1 metre to 10 metres = 1:10, 1 metre to 20 metres = 1:20, 1 Skills Australia used on site plans? metre to 50 metres = 1:50, 1 metre to 100 metres = 1:100 and 1 metre to 200 metres = 1:200.
- What shape are proposed construction works likely to be on a site plan?
Proposed construction works are likely to be basic geometric shapes including straight lines, curved lines, circles, squares, triangles, rectangles and ellipses.
- How could the shape of the proposed construction works be marked out on site?
The shapes may be marked out or set out on the site by using paint from a spray can, lime, stringlines, pegs, stakes, rods and arrows.
- What are the likely reasons for taking levels when setting out a site for construction works?
The reasons for taking levels may be to determine height above sea level or a datum of drainage outlets, areas and volumes in cut and fill operations, any changes in slope or gradient of the land, contours of the land, to provide the means for safe and efficient construction of structures, to achieve falls for drainage of storm water from pavements, falls in pipe work or for installing sumps and drains, and to help set out of step risers, treads, goings, nosing’s, landings and hand-rails to Australian Building Regulations.
- What levelling equipment is likely to be used to verify site levels?
Levelling equipment may include spirit levels, line bubbles, water levels, boning rods, dumpy levels, pegs, tilting levels, automatic levels, laser levels, plumb bobs, staves and tripods.
You as a builder are in the process of setting out a building site; you haven’t quite finished erecting the construction safety fence around the perimeter of the site, ran out of time and you intend to finish it early tomorrow.
However overnight a member of the public decides to wander onto the site, apparently looking for his dog, trips over a profile and breaks his neck and dies on your site.
List the consequences that are about to occur.
The consequences which can occur are:
- The proposed work on be finished on time.
- Due to death of the person, the fear among the workers occurs.
- A legal case can be filed up against the construction team.
- Due to the delay of the work, the work preceding work cannot be finished on time.
- As work won’t get completed on time then over head cost would keep on increasing resulting in high construction cost.
- Family members of that person may ask for compensation.
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