This is a Bio science Assignment help answers the questions of case study based on physiological term and microorganism.
Question 1.) Describe the physiological basis for the appearance of Mary’s wound.
Answer – It is said in the pharmacology that in case there is dirt in the wounds then they take a longer time to be healed up. This is due to the reason that dirt is the carrier of the micro-organisms or the bacteria which multiplies and causes infection in the wound if not prevented thereby taking more time for healing the wound. Mary had tied handkerchief on her wound without even cleaning it or referring to the doctor. The handkerchief is not checked for the kind of material it is made up of or carrying the bacteria due to being unclean. The laceration that is shown in this bio science case that Mary is having on her wound also helps in the movement of the bacteria and causing more infectious situation or a major injury. It acts as a source of the skin infection. The handkerchief in case were made of the suture material would get stick to the wound causing problem in the healing and is so thin that cannot be removed easily. It is usually observed that this kind of material causes breaking of edges of the wound making it more infectious. The wound becomes so painful due to spread of the infection that Mary was facing problem or issue in even walking. It could therefore be said that the laceration, air, dirt from the handkerchief and the wound with the broken edges may be the major carriers of the bacteria and causes of the infection. The wound may appear strong and bigger only if there is widespread of the bacterial infection. It is advisable to always clean the wound with the sterilized cotton and before tying anything, it is shown to the doctor for the consultation.
Question 2.) Explain TWO likely sources for the contamination of the wound and the mode of transmission of the microorganism from each source
Wound sometimes gets healed automatically whereas on the other hand few medicines have to be taken for the healing. It all depends on the condition or the situation of the wound that its further action would be decided. It is dependent on the level or amount of contamination that the wound has suffered from. The major sources of the contamination of the wound are:
The dirt on the handkerchief that Mary used to cover up the wound may be the major source of the contamination of the wound. She had not checked for the cleanliness of the handkerchief. The bacteria or the micro-organisms get stick to the handkerchief and spread the diseases. These bacteria are the major carriers of the infection and make the wound take longer time for healing. The bacteria on the handkerchief are the carriers as they take with them the dirt and debris from the environment and spread it. The transmission mode is the air, environment and the physical contact with the wound of the bacteria.
The other source for the contamination of the wound is the laceration that was coming out of the wound. This laceration does not remain at one place rather keeps moving and spreads the bacteria and the infection in Mary. This is the only reason that Mary has been facing problem in walking and even feeling pain in her wound. This laceration when carries the bacteria they make the edges broken in the wound and even cause further infection to be spread in the entire skin of Mary. The mode of the transmission is the bacteria which may move with the movement of the laceration. In case Mary would take rest and do not move till the recovery of the skin wound then surely the bacteria or the microbes will not move and therefore there would not be any spread in the infection in the skin of Mary.
Question 3.) Explain the rationale for the initial choice of antibiotics, and then indicate why the subsequent change in antibiotic therapy. State any TWO common adverse reactions to dicloxacillin.
Answer – It has been observed that when Mary got her wound, she was feeling a lot of pain and discomfort in walking. Due to her uneasiness and overcoming of the pain in her foot she was given Cephalexin 500 mg which had to be taken in every 6 hours. This anti-biotic would also help in the further spreading of the infection in the wound (Turner & Hebborn, 1965). To a little extent due to not spreading further, the medicine was helping in the killing of the bacteria. Later when the culture and the sensitivity test for the skin was carried out on Mary then surely it was found out that there is presence of Staphylococcus bacteria in the wound and that is the reason for the cause of pain and the further spread of the infection. The antibiotic treatment was changed and she was given Dicloxacillin by the doctor. This anti-biotic is especially given to the patient so that the spreading of these specific bacteria could be prevented. The growth of these bacteria is at enormous rate. It is therefore necessary that strong medicine is being prescribed so that the bacteria are not spread further. The adverse reactions that this antibiotic may cause in the patients are:
Firstly the antibiotic is linked with the Cholestatic jaundice. This is felt and experienced after few days of taking up this medicine especially when the patients stop consuming this one. This has to be immediately told and shown to the doctor in case these reactions are seen by the patient. Secondly this antibiotic may also cause rashes, pain and nausea which ven helps in increasing the biliburin enzymes in the liver of the patient that may cause further infections and problems related with the liver (Katzung, 2004).
Question 4) Describe the process by which Mary’s wound will heal.
Answer – As per the case, Mary saw her wound and instead of first cleaning it and going to the doctor, she tied the handkerchief on her wound. The handkerchief material of the quality and cleanliness was not checked by Mary. This further resulted in the spreading of the infection through the Staphylococcus bacteria that was detected by the culture and sensitivity test. The doctor prescribes the medicine in such a way that Mary’s wound would get healed. Wounds will get healed by the step by step process. It is essential that Mary cleans its wound every day with the sterile bandage and cloth. It should be put with the hydro-gel every day. The wound should not be exposed for a loner time to the air and the environment. She should continue with the Dicloxacillin after every 6 hours. This will help in the prevention of the spread of the bacteria or the growth of the Staphylococcus Aureus organism. There should be very less movement of the foot in order to prevent the spread of the laceration that is also the source of the bacteria spread. The major steps or the points that Mary has to keep in mind are: She should do the dressing every day. She should clean the wound with the sterilized cloth and cotton. She should apply hydro-gel on her wound so that it may be healed well. The dose of the antibiotic that is prescribed by the doctor has to be taken for the time as per the instructions of the doctor. It is also suggested for Mary that she should make lesser movements till the time her wound will be healed up as movement will further result in the spread of the infection or the diseases (Ghosh, 2007).
Ghosh, M. N. (2007). Fundamentals of experimental pharmacology. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 39(4), 216.
Katzung, B. G. (Ed.). (2004). Basic & clinical pharmacology.
Turner, R. A., & Hebborn, P. (1965). Screening methods in pharmacology (Vol. 1). Academic press.