This is Third part of dissertation, in which Apprenticeship Program Dissertation Research methodology is discussed. In this you will get research methods, research design, approach and more.
Chapter -4: research methodology
The sole objective of a research can be framed as a way to find answers to various research questions by applying research tools. The main purpose of research is to find out hidden and undiscovered truth which helps further in jotting down the inferences of the study. In spite of the distinctness and uniqueness of each research study, the main objectives can be framed in the below mentioned major categories:
- Exploratory or Formulative research studies to be familiar with new things or to find dimensions into it.
- Descriptive Research studies to portray accurate features of a particular person, situation or objects;
- Diagnostic Research studies to obtain the number of times a particular thing occurs or something it is associated with;
- Hypothesis-Testing research studies to observe and test a hypothesis stating a normal relationship between variables;
There are also certain motivations behind research studies. This is a major factor with significance importance. Randomly a few motives for doing a research study are listed below which is/are generally followed:
- Aspiration to confront the practical problems and try to solve the unsolved initiates research;
- Aspiration to have a research degree and its benefits of repercussions as well;
- Aspiration to experience joy of doing something creative with highly developed intellect;
- Aspiration of doing social service;
- Aspiration of getting respectability;
However, the above list is not the only motives for doing a research. There can be many more like curiosity about doing new things, government directives, employment right, aspire to learn cause-effect relationships, social awakening etc. can motivate or compel people as well to do research studies
4.1 Research philosophy
The study of apprenticeship in a beauty salon and its future scope is an open ended topic and thus cannot be accommodated within a specified questionnaire with a fixed of set of questions. This will involve a qualitative research on secondary data which can obtained from secondary sources like articles, journals etc. The study will be a descriptive type basis the secondary data. The study will involve no dependent variables and will have some distinct research questions which will help in satisfying the research objectives.
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4.2 Research design
The research design for the apprenticeship in a beauty salon will mainly constitute the study of secondary data. The study is a descriptive type which will be done basis the secondary data obtained from various sources like journals, articles etc. As because the study is very much open-ended it will require a qualitative research to be done based on the descriptive study on the secondary data. There will be no dependent variable in this research and all the parameters are independent.
The major research questions of this qualitative research study regarding the apprenticeship in a beauty salon which will help in fulfilling the objectives of the study can be framed as:
- How apprenticeship helps boosting economic growth and self dependencies in young adults?
- What are the benefits of apprenticeship and how it works in beauty salon?
- What are the roles and responsibilities of an apprentice in a beauty salon?
4.3 Research approach
The approach will mainly be including the data collection and analysis. As it was already mentioned earlier, that data collection will be done mainly from the secondary sources like articles, journals etc. Then descriptive study of the secondary data collected will be done. The descriptive study will mainly include the nature of work of the apprentices, their attitude towards learning, the future scope of the apprentices which can aided by the apprenticeship in the beauty sector and industry.
After the data collection and the descriptive study of the collected data is done, comes the most significant, the analysis. The analysis will lead us to a concrete set of inferences to conclude this research. The analysis will be strong enough to answer each of the research Findings questions.
4.4 Method of data collection
This research is majorly based on secondary survey, where available books, journals, online publications, government publication reports, websites have been used. Primary research is a type of research where the researcher has to gather the data all by himself. The major methods of data collection for a primary research could be:
- Personal Observation: It is a very useful kind of method. Here the researcher directly interacts with the person who provides the information. This type of data collection is supposedly the most perfect way of collecting data (Vann & Hinton, 1994). But at the same as the researcher is the lone person responsible for the collection of data here, his biasness may also come into effect. So it is very important that the researcher is very much unbiased and experienced so that effectiveness of the data collected by him is authentic.
- Indirect Interviews: In this method the researcher collects data through interviewing persons who are directly linked up with the research problem. For this the researcher prepares a set of questions which focuses on answering the research questions. This method of data collection is time saving, the authenticity of the data depends on how well the investigator has judged the person to be interviewed.
- Online Questionnaire filling: This is a very common method of data collection, where the investigator prepares a set of questions in a document providing them with multiple choices of answers. Then the document is shared with the informant through mail and the person fills up the questionnaire accordingly (Dirkx & Jha, 1994). While preparing the questionnaire it should be taken care of that it is short and crisp with limited number of questions in it.
The secondary research is a type of research where the researcher collects data from secondary sources such as articles, journals, other primary research data etc. The data sources could be many such as:
- Sales Data
- Academic Research
- Numeric databases
- Industry media research, and many more
There are certain advantages and disadvantages of secondary research which are listed below.
- It helps in focusing on research projects. While doing secondary research, the investigator has to do a lot of study on the relevant topics which helps him to get acquainted with several theories and thus he gets the proper exposure to the research subject which helps him to focus even more on the topic.
- Unlike primary research where the researcher has to collect primary data from the direct source which takes a lot of time, in secondary research it saves a lot of time. It is because the researcher can collect the data from secondary sources and thus doesn’t need to approach directly to the data source (Rothschild, 2001). This saves a lot of time.
- The method of secondary data collection is also very cost effective. It is because the information is readily available in the articles which are accessible through internet. But primary data collection involves lot cost driving factors.
- The data which is collected from a different research outcome may not be that relevant for the research for which it is collected as a secondary data. This deviates the focus of the study from the very ground level.
- Since this data is collected from a secondary source it should be thoroughly checked and evaluated before applying the same for data analysis. Otherwise the integrity of the data could be lost.
Process Flow of Secondary Research
As mentioned in the above diagram, first comes the idea for the research project. Then proper reading should be done on the research subject from secondary sources like journals, articles etc. After the study is done, the focus should be built for the research project. The research objectives should be set accordingly and the researcher should start proceeding towards his research aim.
The next part consists of the literature review. In this segment, the researcher has to go through a lot of studies, like journals, articles etc. These studies form a strong concept within the researcher regarding the research subject. Then the researcher has to finalize the research methodology and the tools which are to be used for the project (Smith, 2000). The researcher has also got to justify his choice of research methodology. After finalizing the research methodology, the researcher has to collect the secondary data from secondary sources. The next part covers the market analysis. The data collected from the secondary sources should be analyzed to reach the proper conclusion so that the objective of the project is fulfilled. Proper conclusion is important part of the research study which can guide any person going through the report study in the right direction. Proper conclusions can also guide the researcher towards some insightful recommendations which can actually add some value to the project scope. For secondary research, proper references are also important which can help the reader for further studies and helps in ethical consideration that the data used is not stolen or manipulated.
4.5 Reliability & Credibility
Reliability and credibility of the research is assured by the researcher’s process of research methodology. In case of primary research the study can be cross checked and validated by the data collected from respondent’s answers, where as secondary research takes into count only credible information source for framing the research. It is also attempted by the author to use information from internationally accepted journals or peer reviewed articles. Logic and structure of the report along with selection of appropriate research methodology for the subject is also one indicator of the credibility of the research (Gray, 2009).
4.6 Ethical consideration
In the research under question, the ethical consideration was given high importance as it dealt with many national regulations and policy. It has been ensured that no bias is incorporated while structuring the report. This research study doesn’t involve any involvement of live samples and respondents thus avoiding a lot of ethical considerations but proper permission has been sought from the ethical committee of the university. It is also considered and ensured in the study that no community, religion and nationality is accused, insulted or blamed for any wrong doing in general (May, 2005). This research study is an exercise purely intended for academic purpose, and hopes to add some value in the desired area of research study.
4.7 Research scope and limitations
This study has certain scopes and limitations. One of the prime reasons behind going for secondary data is the time constraint which will not allow going for primary data collection. The time constraint will not permit to organize group discussions or focus-group interviews and collection of primary data. Those tools are not restricted by time constraints. However space is not a constraint here as data will be collected from secondary sources like journals, articles etc. which is available over internet.